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Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This is a theoretical article that integrates and extends a particular program of work on power in bargaining relationships. Power is conceptualized as a structurally based capability, and power use as tactical action falling within either conciliatory or hostile categories. The core propositions are (1) the greater the total amount of power in a relationship, the greater the use of conciliatory tactics and the lower the use of hostile tactics; and (2) an unequal power relationship fosters more use of hostile tactics and less use of conciliatory tactics than an equal power relationship. Distinct research on power dependence and bilateral ...


Time Pressure And The Development Of Integrative Agreements In Bilateral Negotiations, Peter J. D. Carnevale, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Time Pressure And The Development Of Integrative Agreements In Bilateral Negotiations, Peter J. D. Carnevale, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure on the process and outcome of integrative bargaining. Time pressure was operationalized in terms of the amount of time available to negotiate. As hypothesized, high time pressure produced nonagreements and poor negotiation outcomes only when negotiators adopted an individualistic orientation; when negotiators adopted a cooperative orientation, they achieved high outcomes regardless of time pressure. In combination with an individualistic orientation, time pressure produced greater competitiveness, firm negotiator aspirations, and reduced information exchange. In combination with a cooperative orientation, time pressure produced greater cooperativeness and lower negotiator aspirations. The main findings were ...


Resolving Conflict Through Explicit Bargaining, Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Stanford University

Resolving Conflict Through Explicit Bargaining, Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This article analyzes the impact of conciliatory initiatives on conflict resolution in two-party bargaining. It specifically develops and tests a theory of unilateral initiatives derived from Osgood's (1962) notion of Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT). The major propositions of the theory indicate that, given a pattern of mutual resistance or hostility, unilateral initiatives and tit-for-tat retaliation in response to punitive action will produce more conciliation and less hostility by an opponent. To test the theory, a bargaining setting was created in a laboratory experiment in which parties exchanged offers and counteroffers on an issue across a ...


Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon 2017 Cornell University

Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon

Edward J Lawler

This chapter focuses in the abstract on when and how repeated negotiations between the same actors foster positive feelings or emotions and, in turn, an affective commitment to their relationship. However, we have in mind applications to pivotal dyads within organizations and also to the emergence of "friction” or "stickiness” in market relations. Implicit in the idea that negotiations in pivotal dyads shape institutional patterns is the notion that repeated negotiations between the same two actors are likely to become more than instrumental ways for the particular actors to get work done. We suggest a simple process by which dyadic ...


The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This study examines the impact of some basic exchange-theory variables, the value and scarcity of outcomes, on perceptions of Self and Other power in a conflict setting. Each respondent took the role of an employee in conflict with an employer, and assessed the magnitude of Self and Other (employer) power. Four variables are manipulated: Self’s outcome scarcity, the value of the outcome to Self, Other’s outcome scarcity, and the value of the outcome to Other. The results are consistent with predictions drawn from the Blau, and Emerson (a, b) treatments of dependence relations. The results suggest that the ...


Outcome Alternatives And Value As Criteria For Multistrategy Evaluations, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach 2017 Cornell University

Outcome Alternatives And Value As Criteria For Multistrategy Evaluations, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach

Edward J Lawler

No abstract provided.


Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

Subjects rendered judgments regarding the power of the participants in a series of conflictual circumstances where an adversary threatened a target. These situations manipulated four independent variables: (a) the adversary's capacity to damage the target's interests, (b) the adversary's probability of actually attacking, (c) the target's ability to block the impending attack, and (d) the target's capacity to retaliate. Results showed that all of the independent variables affected the subjects' judgments of the adversary's power, while three of them (damage, blockage, and retaliation) affected judgments of the target's power. Differences in the predictive ...


Bargaining Toughness: A Qualification Of Level-Of-Aspiration And Reciprocity Hypotheses, Edward J. Lawler, Bruce K. MacMurray 2017 Cornell University

Bargaining Toughness: A Qualification Of Level-Of-Aspiration And Reciprocity Hypotheses, Edward J. Lawler, Bruce K. Macmurray

Edward J Lawler

This research examined the interaction of initial bargaining stance and later concession strategy in dyadic bargaining. Experimental procedures pitted subjects against a programmed opponent and manipulated three variables: initial stance of the opponent across the first two bargaining rounds (tough vs. soft), deadlock vs. no deadlock, and subsequent concession strategy (tough, matching, soft). The results revealed that: (a) with a tough initial stance, a matching strategy produced greater yielding than tough or soft strategies; while in the context of a soft initial stance, a tough concession strategy produced more yielding than a matching or soft concession strategy; and (b) a ...


Cooptation And Coalition Mobilization, Edward J. Lawler, George A. Youngs Jr., Michael D. Lesh 2017 Cornell University Law School

Cooptation And Coalition Mobilization, Edward J. Lawler, George A. Youngs Jr., Michael D. Lesh

Edward J Lawler

The question addressed by this research was, “When structural circumstances make revolutionary action likely, under what conditions will a cooptation strategy prevent subordinate revolts?” Experimental procedures established a group status hierarchy consisting of a leader and two subordinates. Groups earned collective outcomes, and the leader usurped an inequitable portion of these outcomes. In this context, the first experiment shows that a cooptation strategy (i.e., offer of a promotion to one of two subordinates) inhibits subordinate revolts. Two additional experiments indicate that the cooptation strategy is most effective (a) if the offer (strategy) provides the target of cooptation a source ...


Comparison Of Dependence And Punitive Forms Of Power, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach 2017 Cornell University

Comparison Of Dependence And Punitive Forms Of Power, Edward J. Lawler, Samuel B. Bacharach

Edward J Lawler

This paper deals with the impact of power on tactical action in conflict. The theory and research is organized around two conceptual distinctions: one between power based on dependence versus punitive capability, and the other between relative power (i.e., power difference) and "total power" in a relationship (i.e., across actors). The paper will argue that these distinctions are important on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Theoretically, they are important to explicate the connection between conceptions of power that stress the coercive foundation of power (Bierstedt 1950; Tedeschi, Schlenker & Bonoma 1973) and those that treat power as dependence (Bacharach & Lawler 1981; Cook & Emerson 1984; Cook et al. 1981; Emerson 1962, 1972a, 1972b; Molm ...


Endorsement Of Formal Leaders: An Integrative Model, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Endorsement Of Formal Leaders: An Integrative Model, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This experiment develops an integrative, path-analytic model for the endorsement accorded formal leaders. The model contains four independent variables reflecting aspects of group structure (i.e., group success-failure, the payoff distribution, the degree of support by others members for the leader, and the vulnerability of the leader). Also included are two intervening variables reflecting perceptual processes (attributed competence and attributed fairness), and one dependent variable (endorsement). The results indicate that endorsement is greater when the group's success is high, when the payoff distribution is flat rather than hierarchical, and when the leader is not vulnerable to removal from office ...


Leadership In Kansas Agriculture: Examining Organization Ceos’ Styles And Skills, Brad A. Parker MBA, CAE, Jason D. Ellis Ph.D., Duke Rogers Ph.D. 2017 Kansas Soybean Association

Leadership In Kansas Agriculture: Examining Organization Ceos’ Styles And Skills, Brad A. Parker Mba, Cae, Jason D. Ellis Ph.D., Duke Rogers Ph.D.

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

This project’s primary purpose was to identify and describe the leadership styles and skills emphases of current Kansas agricultural organization chief executive officers. Twenty-three current CEOs participated and were described in terms of their leadership styles, leadership-skills emphases, and demographics. Overall, they appeared to be rather “middle of the road” on each of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire’s nine leadership scales. Leadership styles were not significantly affected by demographics, with the exception of formal leadership training affecting transactional leadership and education level, organizational category, and staff size affecting passive-avoidant leadership. Participants generally rated the 50 leadership skills as important ...


Information In Stock Prices: Buy The Rumor, Sell The News?, Pamela Moulton 2017 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Information In Stock Prices: Buy The Rumor, Sell The News?, Pamela Moulton

Center for Hospitality Research Publications

The popular adage, “buy the rumor and sell the news,” can apply to only half of stock trades, because someone must be on the other side of every trade, a party who is “buying the news.” The “news” in this study comes from changes in analyst recommendations, which cause measurable changes in stock prices. On average, analyst upgrades are accompanied by one-day abnormal returns of 1.96 percent, while analyst downgrades lead to one-day abnormal returns of -1.83 percent. Examining the trading patterns of four types of traders, the study finds that active institutional traders are best at buying ...


Appraising Merger Efficiencies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Appraising Merger Efficiencies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Mergers of business firms violate the antitrust laws when they threaten to lessen competition, which generally refers to a price increase resulting from a reduction in output. However, a merger that threatens competition may also enable the post-merger firm to reduce its costs or improve its product. Attitudes toward mergers are heavily driven by assumptions about efficiency gains. If mergers of competitors never produced efficiency gains but simply reduced the number of competitors, a strong presumption against them would be warranted. We tolerate most mergers because of a background, highly generalized belief that most or at least many produce cost ...


Hướng Dẫn Chơi Kèo Tài Xỉu Trong Cá Độ Bóng Đá Đầy Đủ Nhất, dang huydu 2017 Selected Works

Hướng Dẫn Chơi Kèo Tài Xỉu Trong Cá Độ Bóng Đá Đầy Đủ Nhất, Dang Huydu

dang huydu

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Awakening The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Exploring The Relationship Between Organizational Factors And Perceptions Of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy And Desirability In A Corporate Setting, Deborah V. Brazeal, Mark T. Schenkel, Jay A. Azriel 2017 California State Polytechnic University

Awakening The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Exploring The Relationship Between Organizational Factors And Perceptions Of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy And Desirability In A Corporate Setting, Deborah V. Brazeal, Mark T. Schenkel, Jay A. Azriel

Jay Azriel

While efforts at understanding how the entrepreneurial spirit is awakened (e.g., unwrapping the cognitive “black box”) have been productive in the new venture context, it remains largely unexplored in a corporate setting.This study extends previous research by investigating the relationship between organizational antecedents and perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurial activity. In a field study of organizations consistent with a corporate entrepreneurial archetype typology, we found that (1) individual work discretion and time availability impacted entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and (2) individual interest in work innovation influenced perceived desirability of innovative behaviors.


Sarana99.Jpg, west luka 2017 Selected Works

Sarana99.Jpg, West Luka

west luka

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A New Challenge For Emerging Markets: The Need To Develop An Outward Fdi Policy, Karl P. Sauvant 2017 Columbia University

A New Challenge For Emerging Markets: The Need To Develop An Outward Fdi Policy, Karl P. Sauvant

Karl P. Sauvant

While virtually all countries have policies in place to attract FDI, the picture is very different for outward investment. Most developed countries have policies in place, but most emerging markets do not. This Perspective argues that, to remain competitive, governments of emerging markets must develop policies for outward FDI.


Optimizing Emergency Department Throughput Using Best Practices To Improve Patient Flow, Puneet Freibott DNP, RN, NEA-BC, CCRN-K'S 2017 The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston

Optimizing Emergency Department Throughput Using Best Practices To Improve Patient Flow, Puneet Freibott Dnp, Rn, Nea-Bc, Ccrn-K'S

Journal of Nursing & Interprofessional Leadership in Quality & Safety

Emergency Department (ED) crowding and bottle necks are the reality of hospitals across the country. Patients seeking care and needing inpatient beds via the emergency rooms are facing delays with attaining the right level of care. Orchestrating a patient through an ED admission requires a multidisciplinary effort to provide safe, effective and efficient care. This quality improvement project conducted in a tertiary acute care hospital focused on Centers for Medicare and Medicaid metrics to measure Emergency Department (ED) throughput. This multidisciplinary initiative focused on reducing time stamps for patient arrival to the ED through departure to hospital or home. Outcomes ...


“Onward How Starbucks Fought For Its Life Without Losing Its Soul” Book Review, Charles Leduc 2017 Johnson & Wales University - Providence

“Onward How Starbucks Fought For Its Life Without Losing Its Soul” Book Review, Charles Leduc

MBA Student Scholarship

No abstract provided.


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