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Agricultural R&D Policy: A Tragedy Of The International Commons, Jennifer James, Philip Pardey, Julian Alston 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Agricultural R&D Policy: A Tragedy Of The International Commons, Jennifer James, Philip Pardey, Julian Alston

Jennifer S. James

Over the past 50 years public agricultural research has contributed enormously to humanity, enabling the supply of food to grow faster than demand in spite of a rapidly growing population, income growth, and shrinking natural resources. Nonetheless, in many countries we see waning public support for agricultural R&D, especially in Africa, a diversion of research resources from farm productivity towards other agendas, and early warning signs of a slowdown in agricultural productivity. The world has continued to collectively underinvest in agricultural R&D because of domestic and international market failures associated with appropriability problems. Governments have failed to effectively ...


Taxes And Quality: A Market-Level Analysis, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston 2010 Pennsylvania State University

Taxes And Quality: A Market-Level Analysis, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston

Jennifer S. James

A conventional assumption of product homogeneity when the commodity of interest is actually heterogeneous will lead to errors in an analysis of the incidence of policies, such as taxes. In this article, an equilibrium displacement model is used to derive analytical solutions for price, quantity, and quality effects of ad valorem and per unit taxes. The results show how parameters determine the effects of tax policies on quality. The potential for tax-induced distortions in quality, and the distributive consequences of those distortions, are illustrated in a case study of the market for Australian wine.


The Economics Of Agricultural R&D, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Jennifer S. James, Matthew A. Andersen 2010 University of California - Davis

The Economics Of Agricultural R&D, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Jennifer S. James, Matthew A. Andersen

Jennifer S. James

Agricultural research has transformed agriculture and in doing so contributed to the transformation of economies. Economic issues arise because agricultural research is subject to various market failures, because the resulting innovations and technological changes have important economic consequences for net income and its distribution, and because the consequences are difficult to discern and attribute. Economists have developed models and measures of the economic consequences of agricultural R&D and related policies in contributions that relate to a very broad literature ranging across production economics, development economics, industrial organization, economic history, welfare economics, political economy, econometrics, and so on. A key ...


Pennsylvanians' Knowledge Of Agriculture, Fern K. Willits, A. E. Luloff, Jennifer S. James 2010 Pennsylvania State University

Pennsylvanians' Knowledge Of Agriculture, Fern K. Willits, A. E. Luloff, Jennifer S. James

Jennifer S. James

In 2005, researchers at Pennsylvania State University surveyed 1,521 Pennsylvanians in 65 counties to determine their knowledge of and perceptions about agriculture in the state. The study looked to: assess the level of agricultural knowledge of Pennsylvanians; ascertain how personal characteristics and frequency of rural visitation related to agricultural knowledge and to the perceptions of citizens about various agricultural issues; explore the relationship of agricultural knowledge to public perceptions of selected agricultural issues; and suggest how information on Pennsylvanians’ knowledge, experiences, and perceptions of agriculture are relevant to policy makers. The study results showed that, overall, most participants believed ...


Asymmetric Grading Error And Adverse Selection: Lemons In The California Prune Industry, Jennifer S. James, James A. Chalfant, Nathalie Lavoie, Richard J. Sexton 2010 University of California - Davis

Asymmetric Grading Error And Adverse Selection: Lemons In The California Prune Industry, Jennifer S. James, James A. Chalfant, Nathalie Lavoie, Richard J. Sexton

Jennifer S. James

Grading systems are often introduced to address the classic adverse selection problem associated with asymmetric information about product quality. However, grades are rarely measured perfectly, and adverse selection outcomes may persist due to grading error. We study the effects of errors in grading, focusing on asymmetric grading errors-namely when low-quality product can erroneously be classified as high quality, but not vice versa. In a conceptual model, we show the effects of asymmetric grading errors on returns to producers. Application to the California prune industry shows that grading errors reduce incentives to produce more valuable, larger prunes.


U.S. Agricultural Productivity And Returns To Research, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Matt Andersen 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

U.S. Agricultural Productivity And Returns To Research, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey, Matt Andersen

Jennifer S. James

No abstract provided.


Beggar-Thy-Neighbor Advertising: Theory And Application To Generic Commodity Promotion Programs, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, John W. Freebairn 2010 Pennsylvania State University

Beggar-Thy-Neighbor Advertising: Theory And Application To Generic Commodity Promotion Programs, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, John W. Freebairn

Jennifer S. James

Profits from generic advertising by a producer group often come partly at the expense of producers of closely related commodities. The resulting tendency toward excessive advertising is exacerbated by check-off funding. To analyze this beggar-thy-neighbor behavior we compare a scenario where different producer groups cooperate and choose their advertising expenditures jointly to maximize the sum of profits across the groups, and a scenario where they optimize independently. In an illustrative example using 1998 data for U.S. beef and pork, the noncooperatively chosen expenditure on beef and pork advertising is more than three times the cooperative optimum.


Science, Technology And Skills, Philip Pardey, Jennifer James, Julian Alston, Stanley Wood, Bonwoo Koo, Eran Binenbaum, Terrance Hurley, Paul Glewwe 2010 University of Minnesota

Science, Technology And Skills, Philip Pardey, Jennifer James, Julian Alston, Stanley Wood, Bonwoo Koo, Eran Binenbaum, Terrance Hurley, Paul Glewwe

Jennifer S. James

The invention of agriculture that occurred around 10,000 years ago heralded a shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to more managed forms of food, feed and fibre production. The domestication of crops initially involved the saving of seed from one season for planting in subsequent years. Later, farmers purposefully selected crop varieties and so in practice began matching and, by repeated selection over many years, adapting crop genetics to the environment in which the crop was grown. From its inception, enhancing G x E (i.e., gene by environment) interactions was an intrinsic, if not defining, feature of agriculture.


The Incidence Of Agricultural Policy, Julian M. Alston, Jennifer S. James 2010 University of California - Davis

The Incidence Of Agricultural Policy, Julian M. Alston, Jennifer S. James

Jennifer S. James

This chapter first discusses what economists mean by "the incidence of agricultural policy" and why we care about it. Then it reviews models of the determinants of the differential incidence of different policies among interest groups such as suppliers of factors of production, consumers, middlemen, taxpayers, and others. Results are represented in terms of Marshallian economic surplus, and surplus transformation curves. After reviewing the results from standard models under restrictive assumptions, certain assumptions are relaxed in order to analyze the effects of imperfect supply controls, variability, cheating and imperfect enforcement of policies, and the dynamics of supply.


Bargaining Rationale For Cooperative Generic Advertising, Jennifer S. James 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Bargaining Rationale For Cooperative Generic Advertising, Jennifer S. James

Jennifer S. James

The beggar-thy-neighbour aspect of commodity advertising means that benefits to one commodity from advertising come at the expense of other commodities. The effect can be mitigated by cooperation among groups as shown by Alston, Freebairn and James (AFJ). A drawback to AFJ’s analysis is that some cooperative outcomes require side payments from one producer group to another. This paper offers a bargaining solution as an alternative to cooperation in the case where cooperative side payments would be needed. We show that while bargaining without side payments is not as effective as cooperation at reducing beggar-thy-neighbour effects, it is a ...


Levy-Funded Research Choices By Producers And Society, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, John W. Freebairn 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Levy-Funded Research Choices By Producers And Society, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, John W. Freebairn

Jennifer S. James

Commodity levies are used increasingly to fund producer collective goods such as research and promotion. In the present paper we examine theoretical relationships between producer and national benefits from levy-funded research, and consider the implications for the appropriate rates of matching government grants, applied with a view to achieving a closer match between producer and national interests. In many cases the producer and national optima coincide. First, regardless of the form of the supply shift, when product demand is perfectly elastic, or all the product is exported, domestic benefits and costs of levy-funded research all go to producers and they ...


Consumer Knowledge And Acceptance Of Agricultural Biotechnology Vary, Jennifer S. James 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Consumer Knowledge And Acceptance Of Agricultural Biotechnology Vary, Jennifer S. James

Jennifer S. James

Results from consumer surveys reveal some basic conclusions about consumer attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology. First, consumers do not agree about whether biotech foods are good or bad. Second, a small group of people strongly opposes them. Third, the majority of consumers are uninformed about the technology and how food is produced. Relatively small but vocal anti-biotechnology activist groups are successful at influencing public opinion because of consumers’ lack of knowledge, creating a role for universities and government agencies to provide clear, objective and accessible information.


Setting Agricultural Science Strategy In Tumultuous Economic Times, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Setting Agricultural Science Strategy In Tumultuous Economic Times, Jennifer S. James, Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey

Jennifer S. James

The international competitiveness and prosperity of U.S. agriculture depends on steady and rapid productivity growth fueled by public agricultural research and development (R&D). Agricultural science benefits consumers and the environment, not just farmers. Enhanced productivity as a result of agricultural R&D means that consumers have access to a more abundant, cheaper, safer, higher quality, and more diverse and convenient food supply, produced with less stress on natural resources and the environment. From a global perspective, productivity growth allows agricultural production to increase faster than demand; food has become much cheaper over time in spite of a rapidly growing world population with rising per capita incomes. In the future, continuing productivity growth will be necessary to meet the challenges of ever-increasing demand for food along with mounting pressures on the natural resource base, exacerbated by new demands for biofuels crops.


Unionization Of Professional And Technical Workers: The Labor Market And Institutional Transformation, Richard W. Hurd, John Bunge 2010 Cornell University

Unionization Of Professional And Technical Workers: The Labor Market And Institutional Transformation, Richard W. Hurd, John Bunge

Richard W Hurd

[Excerpt] Established institutions that serve the interests of white-collar workers find themselves at a critical juncture. On the one hand they can foresee the potential to augment membership and influence. On the other hand, they confront the reality of reconfigured labor markets. Growth (and indeed survival) is contingent upon being able to adapt to the changing needs and interests of professional and technical workers. The combination of technological advances and alterations in the functioning of white-collar markets suggests strategic reconceptualization and institutional transformation. This chapter explores the attitudes of professional and technical workers toward their jobs and labor market organizations ...


A Framework For Assessing Product Innovation Strategies In A Competitive Context, Patrick Rondeau, B. J. Bhatt 2010 Butler University

A Framework For Assessing Product Innovation Strategies In A Competitive Context, Patrick Rondeau, B. J. Bhatt

Patrick Rondeau

The development of new products capable of satisfying customer demands on a timely basis has become a priority for firms seeking to improve their competitive advantage in a global context. However, this challenge has become highly complex due to a growing diversity of both products and processes, higher costs, and unprecedented considerations for quality and service. Despite knowing a great deal about both the characteristics of successful firms and new product development processes, little is known regarding requisite guidelines for successful strategies in product development.


Individualism-Collectivism And Group Creativity, Jack A. Goncalo, Barry M. Staw 2010 Cornell University

Individualism-Collectivism And Group Creativity, Jack A. Goncalo, Barry M. Staw

Jack Goncalo

Current research in organizational behavior suggests that organizations should adopt collectivistic values because they promote cooperation and productivity, while individualistic values should be avoided because they incite destructive conflict and opportunism. In this paper, we highlight one possible benefit of individualistic values that has not previously been considered. Because individualistic values can encourage uniqueness, such values might be useful when creativity is a desired outcome. Although we hypothesize that individualistic groups should be more creative than collectivistic groups, we also consider an important competing hypothesis: Given that collectivistic groups are more responsive to norms, they might be more creative than ...


Hidden Consequences Of The Group Serving Bias: Causal Attributions And The Quality Of Group Decision Making, Jack Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid 2010 Cornell University

Hidden Consequences Of The Group Serving Bias: Causal Attributions And The Quality Of Group Decision Making, Jack Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid

Jack Goncalo

A long stream of research in attribution theory suggests that groups are biased toward attributing their success to factors that are internal to their group. However, the existing research has confounded two types of attributions that are both internal to the group, but theoretically distinct: (1) Attributions that differentiate between the contributions made by each individual group member and (2) attributions that focus on the group as a whole. This dichotomy is important because, drawing on theories of social influence, we predict that different types of attributions will have different consequences for the quality of group decision making. In experiment ...


Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo 2010 University of California, Berkeley

Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo

Jack Goncalo

We integrate psychological theories of individual creativity with organizational theories of exploration versus exploitation in order to examine the relationship between past success and creativity over time. A key prediction derived from this theoretical integration is that successful people should be more likely to generate new ideas, but these ideas will tend to be less divergent as they favor the exploitation of familiar knowledge at the expense of the exploration of new domains. This prediction departs from the often-held view that people who generate more ideas will also generate ideas that are more divergent. Analyses of patenting in the hard ...


Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict And Group Performance Over Time, Jack Goncalo, Evan Polman, Christina Maslach 2010 Cornell University

Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict And Group Performance Over Time, Jack Goncalo, Evan Polman, Christina Maslach

Jack Goncalo

Groups with a strong sense of collective efficacy set more challenging goals, persist in the face of difficulty, and are ultimately more likely to succeed than groups who do not share this belief. Given the many advantages that may accrue to groups who are confident, it would be logical to advise groups to build a high level of collective efficacy as early as possible. However, we draw on Whyte’s (1998) theory of collective efficacy and groupthink, to predict that when confidence emerges at a high level toward the beginning of a group’s existence, group members may be less ...


Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap To A Sustainable Wind Industry, Ian Baring-Gould, Marguerite Kelly 2010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap To A Sustainable Wind Industry, Ian Baring-Gould, Marguerite Kelly

Publications (E)

As the United States moves toward greatly expanded wind energy use, the need for skilled workers at all industry levels has been repeatedly identified as a critical issue. Additionally, if the industry and nation wish to capitalize on this rapid industry growth by becoming a major international green technology exporter, reversing current educational trends away from science, engineering, and technical skills must be achieved.

This poster provides an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs through a discussion of the activities to train workers while addressing issues for each of the education sectors, leading to the development of ...


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