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Drawbacks And Advantages Of Brexit, Jose Trejos, Sophie Chen 2017 Northwestern University

Drawbacks And Advantages Of Brexit, Jose Trejos, Sophie Chen

Politica Northwestern

In February, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that Britain would vote on the continuation of their membership within the EU. This has led to ministers quickly splitting into factions either in support or opposition to British exit from the EU, now often referred to as “Brexit”. Positions have been established swiftly and deeply. A prominent member of the Conservative Party, Iain Duncan Smith, resigned over a proposal for welfare cuts to disabled people . Mr Smith was a strong proponent of Brexit, and his resignation signals a bigger issue – internal party tensions over clashing opinions. Mr Cameron now fears that ...


The City Is The Factory: New Solidarities And Spatial Strategies In An Urban Age, Miriam Greenberg, Penny Lewis 2017 University of California, Santa Cruz

The City Is The Factory: New Solidarities And Spatial Strategies In An Urban Age, Miriam Greenberg, Penny Lewis

Book Samples

[Excerpt] Urban public spaces, from the streets and squares of Buenos Aires to Zuccotti Park in New York City, have become the emblematic sites of contentious politics in the twenty-first century. As the contributors to The City Is the Factory argue, this resurgent politics of the square is itself part of a broader shift in the primary locations and targets of popular protest from the workplace to the city. This shift is due to an array of intersecting developments: the concentration of people, profit, and social inequality in growing urban areas; the attacks on and precarity faced by unions and ...


Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On High Performance Work Practices, Nana Gyesie 2017 Walden University

Exploring The Impact Of Collective Bargaining Agreements On High Performance Work Practices, Nana Gyesie

2017 Program & Posters

The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore how collective bargaining agreements (CBA) hindered or enabled managers from creating and sustaining high performance work practices (HPWP).


To Work More Or Less? The Impact Of Taxes And Life Satisfaction On The Motivation To Work In Continental And Eastern Europe, Orkhan Nadirov, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning 2017 Tomas Bata University in Zlin

To Work More Or Less? The Impact Of Taxes And Life Satisfaction On The Motivation To Work In Continental And Eastern Europe, Orkhan Nadirov, Khatai Aliyev, Bruce Dehning

Accounting Faculty Articles and Research

Using country-level data from 2000-2013, we test the relationship between life satisfaction (measured as how people evaluate their life as a whole rather than their current feelings) and the motivation to work (measured as aggregate hours of work). Our hypothesis is that even after controlling for average labor income tax rates in countries with high and low average hours worked, there is a significant negative association between the motivation to work and life satisfaction. The main findings of this paper are that the increase in the motivation to work per employee comes at the expense of life satisfaction, and differences ...


Informal Workers And Collective Action: A Global Perspective, Adrienne E. Eaton Ed., Susan J. Schurman Ed., Martha Chen Ed. 2017 Rutgers University

Informal Workers And Collective Action: A Global Perspective, Adrienne E. Eaton Ed., Susan J. Schurman Ed., Martha Chen Ed.

Book Samples

[Excerpt] Around the world, in countries as far flung as Cambodia and Brazil and in industries as diverse as transportation and hospitality, workers in informal employment, who labor every day with no legal or social protection, are organizing and negotiating for better conditions. Some of them are self-employed; others work for wages in either formal or informal enterprises. Some used to have jobs in the formal sector with a union contract; others have always worked informally. To achieve their goals they are mounting collective action campaigns that draw on the repertoire of past generations of workers, but they often recombine ...


Achieving Access: Professional Movements And The Politics Of Health Universalism, Joseph Harris 2017 Boston University

Achieving Access: Professional Movements And The Politics Of Health Universalism, Joseph Harris

Book Samples

[Excerpt] This book examines efforts to expand access to health care and AIDS medicine in Thailand, Brazil, and South Africa. Although these countries are geographi­cally far apart, they share many similarities as newly industrializing countries engaged in processes of democratic opening. Scholars have often suggested that expansionary social policy is the product of left-wing parties and labor unions or bottom-up people’s movements. From a strictly rational perspective, that these groups would be at the forefront of such change makes perfect sense. After all, expanding access to health care and medicine would seem to be in their interest, and ...


Coming Together For Human Rights, Lance A. Compa 2016 Cornell University

Coming Together For Human Rights, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

Trade unionists and human rights advocates started analysing antiunion tactics as violations of international human rights standards. They decided to reargue American labour law on a human rights foundation


Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

This study reports on computational experiments for an agent-based labor market-model-with adaptive choice'and refusal of work site' partners and with endogenously evolving work site behaviors. Two treatment factors ^e experimentally varied: market structure; and ex ante capacity constraints on potential work offers and job openings.- Particular attentions focused on experimentally determined correlations between treatment factors and the formation of contractual networks among workers and employers, and between' contractual network"formation and the'types'o!f work site interactions and welfare outcomes that these contractual networks support.


Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz 2016 Cornell University

Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz

Gary S Fields

Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...


Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.

These data indicate:

  1. A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
  2. A ...


Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Costa Rica’s economic growth in the last 25 years has had favorable labor market and income distribution consequences. Overall, employment growth kept pace with labor force growth, the mix of jobs improved, real wages rose, and relative inequality and absolute poverty fell. But during the economic crisis of 1980-82, when real per capita income plummeted, labor market conditions deteriorated markedly: unemployment doubled, employment composition worsened, and real wages fell by 40%. Growth, labor market conditions, and income distribution have moved together.


Anthropologies Of Unemployment: New Perspectives On Work And Its Absence, Jong Bum Kwon (Ed.), Carrie M. Lane (Ed.) 2016 Webster University

Anthropologies Of Unemployment: New Perspectives On Work And Its Absence, Jong Bum Kwon (Ed.), Carrie M. Lane (Ed.)

Book Samples

[Excerpt] Anthropologies of Unemployment offers accessible, theoretically innovative, and ethnographically rich examinations of unemployment in rural and urban regions across North and South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The diversity of case studies demonstrates that unemployment is a pressing global phenomenon that sheds light on the uneven consequences of free-market ideologies and policies. Economic, social, and cultural marginalization is common in the lives of the unemployed, but their experience and interpretation are shaped by local and national cultural particularities. In exploring those differences, the contributors to this volume employ recent theoretical innovations and engage with some of the more salient ...


Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte 2016 The Ohio State University

Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte

Labor Dynamics Institute

We demonstrate a strategy for using matched employer-employee data to correct endogenous job mobility bias when estimating compensating wage differentials. Applied to fatality rates in the census of formal-sector jobs in Brazil between 2003-2010, we show why common approaches to eliminating ability bias can greatly amplify endogenous job mobility bias. By extending the search-theoretic hedonic wage framework, we establish conditions necessary to interpret our estimates as preferences. We present empirical analyses supporting the predictions of the model and identifying conditions, demonstrating that the standard models are misspecified, and that our proposed model eliminates latent ability and endogenous mobility biases


Comparing Official Strike Data In Europe – Dealing With Varieties Of Strike Recording, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele 2016 ETUI

Comparing Official Strike Data In Europe – Dealing With Varieties Of Strike Recording, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

International strike data have always been incomplete, with no data from such major countries as China and only little data from many other countries. The International Labour Office (ILO) remains the primary source for global data on strikes and lock-outs. Following the reorganization of its Department of Statistics in 2009, it introduced a new database on labour statistics called the ‘ILOSTAT Database’.1 Nevertheless, at the time of writing (March 2016), strike data still show considerable gaps, with up-to-date time series on strikes and lock-outs only available for a minority of countries. There are two main reasons for this. First ...


Interpreting Strike Activity In Western Europe In The Past 20 Years: The Labour Repertoire Under Pressure, Kurt Vandaele 2016 ETUI

Interpreting Strike Activity In Western Europe In The Past 20 Years: The Labour Repertoire Under Pressure, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

This article provides a comparative overview of developments in strike activity in western Europe since the mid-1990s. It uses various indicators to analyse discernible trends over time in levels and patterns of strike activity across sectors and countries. The article argues that strikes are generally blending into a broader palette of workers’ repertoire of collective action. This possible blending applies in particular to a context in which the institutional logic of collective bargaining is underdeveloped or has been undermined.


Editorial, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele 2016 Selected Works

Editorial, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

ggregated strike volumes in western Europe, the geographical focus of this special issue, are on average below the peaks reached in the immediate post-war period and again from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s. However, the European strike picture masks significant differentiation across sectors and between countries and, therefore, general observations on strike activity are encumbered with many exceptions. Overall, however, many strike actions and union-led protests have been defensive struggles as they have been called by trade unions to protect collectively agreed or statutory social standards. The national or EU imposed austerity policies, which followed the Great Recession of ...


Corporate Hypocrisy: Violations Of Trade Union Rights By European Multinational Companies In The United States, Lance A. Compa 2016 Cornell University

Corporate Hypocrisy: Violations Of Trade Union Rights By European Multinational Companies In The United States, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

Many European corporations adopt American management-style attitudes toward trade unions, notwithstanding their publicly-declared support for global norms on workers’ freedom of association. They exploit US labor laws that violate international standards and interfere with trade union formation. Case studies examine several examples of this anti-union hypocrisy on the part of European firms. At the same time, some European companies have chosen to respect workers’ organizing rights in the United States. The conclusion contains recommendations for securing multinational companies’ respect for workers’ freedom of association in the United States, including application of ILO core standards, UN Guiding Principles, OECD Guidelines, and ...


Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta 2016 Cornell University

Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...


The Employment Problem In Korea, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

The Employment Problem In Korea, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

What Korea has is not an "unemployment problem" but rather an "employment problem." The employment problem includes continued high unemployment, but it goes well beyond it, also encompassing falling labor earnings, rising poverty and inequality, disproportionate impacts on disadvantaged groups, informalisation of employment, increased job insecurity, and consequent social strains. This paper documents Korea's employment problem, characterizes the problem as deficient aggregate demand rather than frictional or structural unemployment, examines in some detail three of the most important elements of the social safety net (the Employment Insurance System, the Livelihood Protection Program, and public works), and considers four major ...


Segmented Labour Markets In South Africa, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Segmented Labour Markets In South Africa, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] The textbook labour market model aggregates all workers, all employers and all sectors of the economy into a single labour market. In this single labour market, workers supply labour, employers demand labour and the rate of pay (termed wage for shorthand) is determined by the intersection of supply and demand. Segmented labour market analysis proceeds from a different starting point. Workers, employers and sectors are not aggregated together. Rather, two or more labour market segments are identified, the groupings reflecting fundamental differences in how labour supply, labour demand and wage-determination mechanisms operate in different segments. For example, in the ...


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