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Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz 2016 Cornell University

Income-Generating Functions In A Low Income Country: Colombia, Gary S. Fields, T. Paul Schultz

Gary S Fields

Income generating functions are statistical tools used to explain income inequality and other economic outcomes and behavior. These functions are often associated with a strict human capital framework, but they need not be. Instead, they may be viewed as a reduced form equation summarizing the relationship between income and various personal and locational characteristics. Following this latter interpretation, we develop the regression and analysis of variance approaches to income generating functions and estimate them empirically using micro-economic data from one low income country, Colombia. Proceeding to increasingly parsimonious specifications of income generating functions, insights are gained into the structure of ...


Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment, Income Distribution And Economic Growth In Seven Small Open Economies, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] Resurgent interest has been manifested among development economists in trickle-down, i.e., the view that the more rapid the rate of economic growth, the more rapid the improvement in employment and income distribution. Throughout this paper, the term ‘income distribution’ will refer to the location and dispersion of the pattern of incomes, i.e., to ‘absolute incomes and poverty’ and to ‘relative income inequality’. Empirical evidence supports trickle-down in some cases, but the evidence is contrary to trickle-down in others.

These data indicate:

  1. A high rate of economic growth is neither necessary nor sufficient for inequality to decline.
  2. A ...


Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment And Economic Growth In Costa Rica, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Costa Rica’s economic growth in the last 25 years has had favorable labor market and income distribution consequences. Overall, employment growth kept pace with labor force growth, the mix of jobs improved, real wages rose, and relative inequality and absolute poverty fell. But during the economic crisis of 1980-82, when real per capita income plummeted, labor market conditions deteriorated markedly: unemployment doubled, employment composition worsened, and real wages fell by 40%. Growth, labor market conditions, and income distribution have moved together.


Anthropologies Of Unemployment: New Perspectives On Work And Its Absence, Jong Bum Kwon (Ed.), Carrie M. Lane (Ed.) 2016 Webster University

Anthropologies Of Unemployment: New Perspectives On Work And Its Absence, Jong Bum Kwon (Ed.), Carrie M. Lane (Ed.)

Book Samples

[Excerpt] Anthropologies of Unemployment offers accessible, theoretically innovative, and ethnographically rich examinations of unemployment in rural and urban regions across North and South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The diversity of case studies demonstrates that unemployment is a pressing global phenomenon that sheds light on the uneven consequences of free-market ideologies and policies. Economic, social, and cultural marginalization is common in the lives of the unemployed, but their experience and interpretation are shaped by local and national cultural particularities. In exploring those differences, the contributors to this volume employ recent theoretical innovations and engage with some of the more salient ...


Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte 2016 The Ohio State University

Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials With Endogenous Job Mobility, Kurt Lavetti, Ian M. Schmutte

Labor Dynamics Institute

We demonstrate a strategy for using matched employer-employee data to correct endogenous job mobility bias when estimating compensating wage differentials. Applied to fatality rates in the census of formal-sector jobs in Brazil between 2003-2010, we show why common approaches to eliminating ability bias can greatly amplify endogenous job mobility bias. By extending the search-theoretic hedonic wage framework, we establish conditions necessary to interpret our estimates as preferences. We present empirical analyses supporting the predictions of the model and identifying conditions, demonstrating that the standard models are misspecified, and that our proposed model eliminates latent ability and endogenous mobility biases


Comparing Official Strike Data In Europe – Dealing With Varieties Of Strike Recording, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele 2016 ETUI

Comparing Official Strike Data In Europe – Dealing With Varieties Of Strike Recording, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

International strike data have always been incomplete, with no data from such major countries as China and only little data from many other countries. The International Labour Office (ILO) remains the primary source for global data on strikes and lock-outs. Following the reorganization of its Department of Statistics in 2009, it introduced a new database on labour statistics called the ‘ILOSTAT Database’.1 Nevertheless, at the time of writing (March 2016), strike data still show considerable gaps, with up-to-date time series on strikes and lock-outs only available for a minority of countries. There are two main reasons for this. First ...


Editorial, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele 2016 Selected Works

Editorial, Heiner Dribbusch, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

ggregated strike volumes in western Europe, the geographical focus of this special issue, are on average below the peaks reached in the immediate post-war period and again from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s. However, the European strike picture masks significant differentiation across sectors and between countries and, therefore, general observations on strike activity are encumbered with many exceptions. Overall, however, many strike actions and union-led protests have been defensive struggles as they have been called by trade unions to protect collectively agreed or statutory social standards. The national or EU imposed austerity policies, which followed the Great Recession of ...


Corporate Hypocrisy: Violations Of Trade Union Rights By European Multinational Companies In The United States, Lance A. Compa 2016 Cornell University

Corporate Hypocrisy: Violations Of Trade Union Rights By European Multinational Companies In The United States, Lance A. Compa

Lance A Compa

Many European corporations adopt American management-style attitudes toward trade unions, notwithstanding their publicly-declared support for global norms on workers’ freedom of association. They exploit US labor laws that violate international standards and interfere with trade union formation. Case studies examine several examples of this anti-union hypocrisy on the part of European firms. At the same time, some European companies have chosen to respect workers’ organizing rights in the United States. The conclusion contains recommendations for securing multinational companies’ respect for workers’ freedom of association in the United States, including application of ILO core standards, UN Guiding Principles, OECD Guidelines, and ...


Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta 2016 Cornell University

Earnings Mobility In Times Of Growth And Decline: Argentina From 1996 To 2003, Gary S. Fields, María Laura Sánchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

In recent years, the economy of Argentina has experienced both rapid economic growth and severe economic decline. In this paper, we use a series of one-year long panels to study who gained the most in pesos when the economy grew and who lost the most in pesos when the economy contracted. Various considerations led us to expect that mobility would be divergent—that is, that the individuals who started with the highest initial earnings would enjoy the largest earnings gains in pesos. Contrary to expectations and for a wide range of specifications, mobility is found to be mostly convergent, sometimes ...


The Employment Problem In Korea, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

The Employment Problem In Korea, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

What Korea has is not an "unemployment problem" but rather an "employment problem." The employment problem includes continued high unemployment, but it goes well beyond it, also encompassing falling labor earnings, rising poverty and inequality, disproportionate impacts on disadvantaged groups, informalisation of employment, increased job insecurity, and consequent social strains. This paper documents Korea's employment problem, characterizes the problem as deficient aggregate demand rather than frictional or structural unemployment, examines in some detail three of the most important elements of the social safety net (the Employment Insurance System, the Livelihood Protection Program, and public works), and considers four major ...


Segmented Labour Markets In South Africa, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Segmented Labour Markets In South Africa, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] The textbook labour market model aggregates all workers, all employers and all sectors of the economy into a single labour market. In this single labour market, workers supply labour, employers demand labour and the rate of pay (termed wage for shorthand) is determined by the intersection of supply and demand.

Segmented labour market analysis proceeds from a different starting point. Workers, employers and sectors are not aggregated together. Rather, two or more labour market segments are identified, the groupings reflecting fundamental differences in how labour supply, labour demand and wage-determination mechanisms operate in different segments. For example, in the ...


Self-Employment And Poverty In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell Universitty

Self-Employment And Poverty In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

A key way for the world’s poor—nearly half of humanity—to escape poverty is to earn more for their labor. Most of the world’s poor people are self-employed, but because there are few opportunities in most developing countries for them to earn enough to escape poverty, they are working hard but working poor. Two key policy planks in the fight against poverty should be: raising the returns to self-employment and creating more opportunities to move from self-employment into higher paying wage employment.


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields 2016 Cornell University

Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Falling Labor Income Inequality In Korea’S Economic Growth: Patterns And Underlying Causes, Gyeongjoon Yoo, Gary S. Fields 2016 Korea Development Institute

Falling Labor Income Inequality In Korea’S Economic Growth: Patterns And Underlying Causes, Gyeongjoon Yoo, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

Over the last twenty-five years, the economy of the Republic of Korea achieved a remarkable growth rate of 7 percent per year in real per capita income, causing it to be labeled, justifiably, as a “miracle economy.” This exceptional economic growth has been accompanied by an even more exceptional fall in labor income inequality. Using a newly-developed methodology, we use data from Korea’s Occupational Wage Surveys to quantify the importance of various factors that have contributed to the fall in labor income inequality in Korea. We find the most important factors explaining the level of income inequality are job ...


Earnings Mobility, Inequality, And Economic Growth In Argentina, Mexico, And Venezuela, Gary S. Fields, Robert Duval-Hernandez, Samuel Freije, Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta 2016 Cornell University

Earnings Mobility, Inequality, And Economic Growth In Argentina, Mexico, And Venezuela, Gary S. Fields, Robert Duval-Hernandez, Samuel Freije, Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta

Gary S Fields

This paper examines changes in individual earnings during positive and negative growth periods in three Latin American economies: Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela. We ask two major questions. First, do panel income changes favor the income recipients who started at the top of the income distribution (“divergent mobility”) or those who started at the bottom (“convergent mobility”)? And second, are the groups that are found to gain the most when the economy is growing those that are found to lose the most when the economy is contracting (“symmetry of mobility”) or is the pattern asymmetric in the sense that the same ...


Are African Workers Getting Ahead In The New South Africa? Evidence From Kwazulu-Natal, 1993-1998, Paul L. Cichello, Gary S. Fields, Murray Leibbrandt 2016 Cornell University

Are African Workers Getting Ahead In The New South Africa? Evidence From Kwazulu-Natal, 1993-1998, Paul L. Cichello, Gary S. Fields, Murray Leibbrandt

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] In this paper, we use the KIDS panel data to answer three questions about the ‘progress’ of African workers in this one province in post-apartheid South Africa. First, how have African workers progressed as a group? Secondly, which African workers have progressed the most, and by how much have they progressed? Thirdly, to what extent is the progress made by workers driven by transitions between employment and unemployment, or between informal and formal sector employment? We reach the following major findings. First, African workers in KwaZulu-Natal had quite diverse experiences, but experienced positive progress on average. Second, those who ...


Workers Of The World: International Journal On Strikes And Social Conflicts, Vol. 1 No. 8, Strikes and Social Conflicts International Association 2016 Cornell University ILR School

Workers Of The World: International Journal On Strikes And Social Conflicts, Vol. 1 No. 8, Strikes And Social Conflicts International Association

Workers of the World - International Journal on Strikes and Social Conflict

No abstract provided.


Discussion Results From Future Directions In Iowa Education A Statewide Satellite Teleconference, Mark A. Edelman Dr., James J. Knudsen 2016 Iowa State University

Discussion Results From Future Directions In Iowa Education A Statewide Satellite Teleconference, Mark A. Edelman Dr., James J. Knudsen

Mark Edelman

The Future Directions in Iowa Education program was designed with three purposes in mind. First, the program was designed to provide local participants with the latest perspectives on current statewide trends in Iowa schools, school fiananceand legislative options. Second, the program was designed to provide each participant with data on local school district trends and directions for comparison with neighboring districts„ Finallv™ the program was designed to provide each participant with a sense of direction (or lack thereof) on manv of the major education issues as a result of discussions with other state and local leaders- As a result, the ...


Better Work And Global Governance, Paul Alois 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Better Work And Global Governance, Paul Alois

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a case study of Better Work, a program run by the International Labor Organization and the International Finance Corporation. It aims to improve working conditions and productivity in the apparel industry. The purpose of this case study is to examine the role that international organizations can play in global governance. The research presented here comes from interviews, document analysis, and an examination of quantitative data on factories’ working conditions. In-person interviews were conducted in the United States, Switzerland, Vietnam, and Indonesia; many phone interviews took place with individuals in other countries. Both publicly available documents and internal ...


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