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With Love, ; An Interdisciplinary And Intersectional Look At Why Creativity Is Essential, Theo Starr Gardner 2024 Whittier College

With Love, ; An Interdisciplinary And Intersectional Look At Why Creativity Is Essential, Theo Starr Gardner

Whittier Scholars Program

My Whittier Scholars Program self-designed major, Teaching Creativity, is a mixture of Art, Literature, and Education classes. My research and praxis classes have been focused on the ‘how?’s and 'why?’s of creativity, so it felt only right that my project should be a constructivist, generative project. The project I have been working on throughout my time at Whittier, and that has just fully come to fruition on April 11th, 2024, was a solo art gallery/open mic event entitled ‘With Love,’. With Love, was conceptually inspired by the research I’ve conducted on creativity and creative arts education over the past few …


Transcendence In Kierkegaard And Barth, Andrew Myrick 2024 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Transcendence In Kierkegaard And Barth, Andrew Myrick

Honors Theses

This paper examines the theological intersections and divergences between Karl Barth and Søren Kierkegaard, focusing on their conceptualizations of God's transcendence. Barth, influential in the twentieth century, viewed divine knowledge as accessible only through Jesus Christ's revelation, critiquing any historical or metaphysical bases for such knowledge. He was significantly influenced by Kierkegaard, who emphasized paradox and the "infinite qualitative distinction." This study traces Barth's evolving thoughts on transcendence across his works, including his critiques of Kierkegaard in his later years. While some scholars suggest a shared theological trajectory based on transcendence, this paper argues for nuanced differences, engaging with the …


Review Of Oneness Pentecostalism: Race, Gender, And Culture. Edited By Lloyd D. Barba, Andrea S. Johnson, And Daniel Ramírez, Peter Althouse 2024 Oral Roberts University

Review Of Oneness Pentecostalism: Race, Gender, And Culture. Edited By Lloyd D. Barba, Andrea S. Johnson, And Daniel Ramírez, Peter Althouse

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Reviews | 143 Oneness Pentecostalism: Race, Gender, and Culture. Edited by Lloyd D. Barba, Andrea S. Johnson, and Daniel Ramírez. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania University Press, 2023. 282 pp.

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Peter Althouse


A Pneumatology Of Race In The Gospel Of John: An Ethnocritical Study. By Rodolfo Estrada Galvan, Iii., Harold A. Gutierrez 2024 Oral Roberts University

A Pneumatology Of Race In The Gospel Of John: An Ethnocritical Study. By Rodolfo Estrada Galvan, Iii., Harold A. Gutierrez

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

A Pneumatology of Race in the Gospel of John: An Ethnocritical Study. By Rodolfo Estrada Galvan, III. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2019. 362 pp.

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Harold Gutierrez (hgutier2@oru.edu) is a PhD student in Contextual Theology at Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. He currently serves as intercultural ministries director for the BC/Yukon District of PAOC and is an adjunct faculty member at Summit Pacific College in Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada.


Review Of Tongues Of Fire: A Systematic Theology Of The Christian Faith. By Frank Macchia., Michael D. Young 2024 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Review Of Tongues Of Fire: A Systematic Theology Of The Christian Faith. By Frank Macchia., Michael D. Young

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Tongues of Fire: A Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith. By Frank Macchia. Eugene: OR: Cascade Books, 2023. 478 pp.

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Michael Young (mdyoung@seu.edu) currently serves as an adjunct professor at Pacific Rim University in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.


Review Of Pentecostal Orthodoxy: Toward An Ecumenism Of The Spirit. By Emilio Alvarez., Samuel Hogan 2024 Oral Roberts University

Review Of Pentecostal Orthodoxy: Toward An Ecumenism Of The Spirit. By Emilio Alvarez., Samuel Hogan

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Pentecostal Orthodoxy: Toward an Ecumenism of the Spirit. By Emilio Alvarez. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2022. xiv + 174 pp.

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S. Slade Hogan (slade111s@oru.edu) is a PhD student in Contextual Theology at Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, and Pastor of the Community Church of Milton, Milton, New Hampshire, USA.


Covid-19 And Church Attendance Behavior Trends: Evidence From Ghanaian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches, Justice A. Arthur, Lydia Andoh-Quainoo 2024 Pentecost University

Covid-19 And Church Attendance Behavior Trends: Evidence From Ghanaian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches, Justice A. Arthur, Lydia Andoh-Quainoo

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

The concept of religious economy views churches as corporate entities, pastors as marketers offering a range of products, and church members as consumers whose preferences shape the goods and services provided by ministers. Within this framework, church members react quickly to changing economic, social, and cultural conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only had an economic impact, with job losses and financial struggles, but has also brought about social and cultural changes that have affected consumer behavior in many areas of life worldwide. For instance, during the pandemic, church gatherings were restricted or prohibited, socializing was replaced with social distancing, …


Pentecostalism And Current Development In West Africa: Reimagining The Pentecostal Landscape, Politics, And Vision, Fred Cudjoe Adadey, Yisa Barnabas 2024 University of Roehampton, London

Pentecostalism And Current Development In West Africa: Reimagining The Pentecostal Landscape, Politics, And Vision, Fred Cudjoe Adadey, Yisa Barnabas

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

A growing body of literature on African Pentecostals in sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted in this article, highlighting a more defined contribution of African Pentecostals to the development landscape. Until recently, the African Pentecostal development landscape recorded little visibility at the national level, on the assumption that their experience only highlights cultural and theological relevance. However, this emerging visibility has identified, as a conceptual category, an imaginary social space with practical ramification. Based on a critical analytical review of literature, this article examines the shift from traditional Pentecostal theology to a more focused attention on the social transformation created by a …


Managing Financial Sector Crisis: Do “Faith” And “Leave It To God” Matter?, Rebecca Attah, Christine Avortri, Emmanuel Appah, Alexander Preko 2024 Oral Roberts University

Managing Financial Sector Crisis: Do “Faith” And “Leave It To God” Matter?, Rebecca Attah, Christine Avortri, Emmanuel Appah, Alexander Preko

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to elucidate the understanding of two religious concepts related to the financial sector clean-up among bank customers; and second, to explore how these concepts have been employed as strategies to mitigate the impact of financial sector clean-up shocks in Ghana. This qualitative research is anchored in the theory of belief and meaning-making theory, utilizing purposive and snowball sampling methods, with twenty-eight in-depth interviews for data gathering. The findings of this study revealed that financial sector clean-up customers understood religious faith as “aggressive faith,” “passive faith,” and “offensive faith,” which were found to …


Holiness As Wholeness In Afro- Pentecostal Tradition: A Theological Perspective, Ivan L. Hartsfield Dr 2024 Oral Roberts University

Holiness As Wholeness In Afro- Pentecostal Tradition: A Theological Perspective, Ivan L. Hartsfield Dr

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Using the Church of God in Christ (COGIC) as the exemplar, I explore the theological rationale that undergirds the COGIC priority of holiness as a prescription for human wholeness. By wholeness, I mean human flourishing of the total person. For the COGIC, “Salvation is a deliverance from dangers and enemies.” Through the democratization of what was historically reserved for spiritual heroes, namely the designation of “saint,” common people of little means were immediately uplifted. They grabbed ahold of this moniker, which redefined them and identified their new place of spiritual residence in Zion. By faith, they expected to experience a …


The Prayer Tongue And The Jesus Prayer: The Witness Of Abbot David Geraets, Clyde Glandon 2024 Fellowship of the Name

The Prayer Tongue And The Jesus Prayer: The Witness Of Abbot David Geraets, Clyde Glandon

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

To my knowledge Abbot David Geraets (1935–2012) of the Pecos Benedictine Monastery has been the only Christian witness and writer, past or present, to join the practice of the ancient Jesus Prayer and the prayer tongue. He simply says that “repeating the name of Jesus can become a masterful art of glossolalia prayer.” Abbot David’s statement is not found as such in the centuries of Eastern Orthodox literature about the Jesus Prayer. Nor is such a joining found among classical Pentecostal Christians who, while fully familiar with the prayer tongue and with life and power in Jesus’ name, commonly have …


A Proposed Pentecostal Quadrilectic: Explorations For Asian Pentecostal Hermeneutics, Lora Angeline E. Timenia 2024 Asia Pacific Theological Seminary

A Proposed Pentecostal Quadrilectic: Explorations For Asian Pentecostal Hermeneutics, Lora Angeline E. Timenia

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Developing a general framework for Asian Pentecostal hermeneutics is necessary for a continent where the Holy Bible is “Scripture among scriptures.” Although Pentecostal Christianity in Asia is growing, interpreting Scripture in a manner relevant to local contextual realities is necessary to propagate grassroots theologies. As such, the current Pentecostal hermeneutical triad of Spirit-Scripture-Community (Archer) or Spirit-Word-Community (Yong) needs further articulations of a reader’s tradition and cultural/ethnic contexts. The concept of an interpretive “Pentecostal community” needs clarification in the Asian setting where multiple interpretative communities exist. This study proposes a framework that recognizes the dialectical role of the text’s context and …


“Study To Show Thyself Approved”: An Analysis Of Oral Roberts’ Personal Copy Of The Commentary On Exodus By Umberto Cassuto, Daniel D. Bunn Jr 2024 Oral Roberts University

“Study To Show Thyself Approved”: An Analysis Of Oral Roberts’ Personal Copy Of The Commentary On Exodus By Umberto Cassuto, Daniel D. Bunn Jr

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Having happened upon what was previously Oral Roberts’ personal copy of the commentary on Exodus by Umberto Cassuto, I observed his active interaction with the volume by way of notes and underlines. I determined to analyze his interaction with it. This essay shares the results of the analysis of that book. It begins with a brief overview of his personal life during the time in which he possessed the commentary. Then, it makes observations about his interaction, showing specific examples. Finally, it will look more intently at a sermon in which his use of the commentary is made explicit.


Editorial - Spiritus 9.1 (Spring 2024), Jeffrey S. Lamp 2024 Oral Roberts University

Editorial - Spiritus 9.1 (Spring 2024), Jeffrey S. Lamp

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Spiritus 9.1 (Spring 2024), spiritus@oru.edu 2024 Oral Roberts University

Front Matter Spiritus 9.1 (Spring 2024), Spiritus@Oru.Edu

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

No abstract provided.


Full Issue Spiritus 9.1 (2024), spiritus@oru.edu 2024 Oral Roberts University

Full Issue Spiritus 9.1 (2024), Spiritus@Oru.Edu

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Spiritus 9.1 (Spring 2024) full issue. Edited by Jeff Lamp, Ph.D.


Ripe For The Harvest: Developing Servants Through Spiritual Formation At Fairhaven Church Of Rootstown, Vincent A. Maltempi 2024 Liberty University

Ripe For The Harvest: Developing Servants Through Spiritual Formation At Fairhaven Church Of Rootstown, Vincent A. Maltempi

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This action research project addresses the need to develop committed Christian servants within a church ministry context by utilizing a spiritual formation initiative focused on service as a means towards and evidence of spiritual formation and development. Fairhaven Church of Rootstown had not been instructed on the fundamental need for members to serve together. Consequently, service within the church was not a necessary part of discipleship or its spiritual growth plan. The purpose of this intervention was to create and implement a three-fold spiritual development initiative focused on Christian service that includes a sermon series, a midweek study, and a …


The Scatological Scriptures: A Biblical Theology Of Dung, Zachary C. Hill 2024 Liberty University

The Scatological Scriptures: A Biblical Theology Of Dung, Zachary C. Hill

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The Scriptures contain a theology of dung. When the semantic and conceptual cognates that pertain to dung are synthesized, the result is a scriptural scatology whereby dung is presented as a symbol for sin. To clarify, the biblical exhibition of dung presents excrement as a central symbol employed by Scripture to concretize the abstract nature of sin. When each semantic and conceptual cognate that pertains to dung is examined, in nearly every instance where dung is mentioned, sin is in close proximity. The recognition of the dung–sin symbol enlightens particular aspects related to the nature of sin, which mirrors the …


Others First: A Visual Roadmap 4 Transformation, Toby D. Wagoner 2024 Liberty University

Others First: A Visual Roadmap 4 Transformation, Toby D. Wagoner

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Small rural churches tend to have an inward-focus mindset fueled by the need for self-preservation and survival. This transactional ministry mindset negatively impacts sharing the love of Christ with others, culminating in apathetic attitudes toward church functionality. The problem this DMin action research project sought to address is the inward focus of First Baptist Church of Ravenswood members. The church needs to improve its evangelism and discipleship efforts, embrace sharing their love of Christ with others, begin engaging guests on a meaningful level, and consider facility upgrades. Members were reminded of the importance of demonstrating their love of Christ to …


Let My People Go: A Biblical Theology Of Liberation In The Exodus Motif, Lou Ann Smith 2024 Liberty University

Let My People Go: A Biblical Theology Of Liberation In The Exodus Motif, Lou Ann Smith

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Liberation theologians view political liberation as the central theme of the historical Exodus event due to their interpretation of the text through the perspective of the oppressed and the oppressor. I reject the postmodern stance of liberation theologians, which overemphasizes political liberation and fails to consider the links between Yahweh’s supernatural actions on behalf of the Hebrews in light of Yahweh’s covenantal obligations to Abraham’s descendants. This study argues against the use of liberation theologies as the paradigm for interpreting the historical Exodus event and asserts that a biblical theology of the Exodus motif reveals “covenant” as the interpretive key …


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