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Violence In The Bible And The Bhagavad Gita, Hector Avalos 2017 Iowa State University

Violence In The Bible And The Bhagavad Gita, Hector Avalos

Hector Avalos

The relationship between religion and violence has received new attention in the last couple of decades, particularly as the. demise of the bipolar world has led to debate about whether the resurgence in nationalisms are necessarily associated with religious divisions (Huntington; Rashid). At the same time, postcolonial writers such as Edward Said and .Richard King have been reassessing the relationships between the west and the "east," as constructed by Europeans and Americans. Such reassessments naturally precipitate the question of how the sacred texts of various religions view violence and its justification.


Islam In Saudi Arabia: The Homogeneous Portrayal And Heterogeneous Reality, John Rogeberg 2017 Liberty University

Islam In Saudi Arabia: The Homogeneous Portrayal And Heterogeneous Reality, John Rogeberg

Masters Theses

The objective of this thesis is to apply commonly held statistics in the world of missiology regarding folk Islamic practices to the least likely country for such practices to be found, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is believed by most to be the birth-site of an austere, strict, orthodox form of Islam, responsible for the nature and nurture (education, promotion, and financing) of Islamic extremism. Conversely, I posit that through tracing the development of Wahhabism and its current global influence on Islam, its literalist interpretation becomes a profitable tool for the student of anthropology, missiology, and cross-cultural studies to gain a ...


Confucianism: How Analects Promoted Patriarchy And Influenced The Subordination Of Women In East Asia, Lauren J. Littlejohn 2017 Grant High School

Confucianism: How Analects Promoted Patriarchy And Influenced The Subordination Of Women In East Asia, Lauren J. Littlejohn

Young Historians Conference

Analects, compiled by Confucius’ disciples, helps historians understand the origin of Chinese philosophy and women’s role in society. Analects created a separation of gender that assigned women the domestic role and granted men the authority to handle public affairs. Furthermore, Analects influenced the work of other philosophers who published similarly patriarchal works. Additionally, the subordination of women in Analects, resulted in the practice of female-infanticide, concubinage, and ghost marriages. Analects and the application of Confucianism offers historians an opportunity to study how women in East Asia were treated in the past and helps explain why women continue to be ...


The Origins And Identity Of Roman Mithraism, Charles R. Hill 2017 University of Nebraska Lincoln

The Origins And Identity Of Roman Mithraism, Charles R. Hill

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

This thesis is a reassessment of scholarship concerning the origins of the cult mysteries of Mithraism in its Roman form during the Imperial Period. While much has been published in the debate over the cult’s true origins, we are still left without a satisfactory answer. The present work is an attempt to reconcile some of the arguments posed in the 19th and early 20th centuries with those of the later 20th and 21st centuries, focusing mostly on the cult’s art and iconography in Mithraea, the central spaces of Mithraic worship. First will be a ...


The Extent Of The Christian Approach In Converting Chinese Buddhists Encountering Physical Or Spiritual Difficulties In Life, Ann Ge 2017 Liberty University

The Extent Of The Christian Approach In Converting Chinese Buddhists Encountering Physical Or Spiritual Difficulties In Life, Ann Ge

Masters Theses

This research paper presents the results of a quantitative and qualitative survey of Chinese Christians from Buddhist backgrounds, with a special focus on the Christian response to life trials, since, in Buddhism, any spiritual or physical adversity tends to be attributed to bad Karma from one’s past. The biggest aim of the research is to investigate more effective ways of leading Chinese people to Christ. The survey focuses mainly on three aspects of the respondents’ conversion stories: (1) their backgrounds, (2) their life changes after conversion, and (3) their inter-religious perspectives. In terms of background, most of the respondents ...


The Scope And Limits Of Secular Buddhism: Watanabe Kaikyoku (1868–1912) And The Japanese New Buddhist 'Discovery Of Society', James Shields 2017 Bucknell University

The Scope And Limits Of Secular Buddhism: Watanabe Kaikyoku (1868–1912) And The Japanese New Buddhist 'Discovery Of Society', James Shields

Faculty Contributions to Books

Although New Buddhism is a term sometimes employed to refer to the broad sweep of reform and modernization movements in Japanese Buddhist thought and practice beginning in the 1870s, the term shin bukkyō refers more specifically to a broadly influential movement of some two dozen young scholars and lay Buddhists active in the last decade of the Meiji period (1868–1912). Founded in February 1899 as Bukkyō Seito Dōshikai (Buddhist Pure Believers Fellowship or Buddhist Puritan Association), the group changed its name to Shin Bukkyō Dōshikai (New Buddhist Fellowship) in 1903. Notto Thelle refers to the NBF as “the most ...


The Grace Of God And The Travails Of Contemporary Indian Catholicism, Kerry P. C. San Chirico 2016 Villanova University

The Grace Of God And The Travails Of Contemporary Indian Catholicism, Kerry P. C. San Chirico

Journal of Global Catholicism

This essay discusses the challenges faced by Indian Catholicism, particularly as it seeks to adapt to and in contemporary, post-colonial India through the process or program of what is called inculturation, a self-conscious program of adaptation to Indian religion and culture. Since Indian Catholicism is constituted by so many irreducible persons-in-relation, the article focuses on the life of the Catholic priest, Swami Ishwar Prasad in whose life we may chart something of the inculturation movement and the Catholic tradition as it is found in North India region, in one rather long and rich lifetime connecting two centuries. The article seeks ...


In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah 2016 Department of Christian Studies, University of Madras, Chennai, India

In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article considers whether Indian Christianity can be said to have a distinctive ecological vision. The first two parts of the article examine Christian environmentalism in two native forms of Indian Christianity: Tamil Christianity and Tribal Christianity. Continuing with the theme of conformity to the local culture—though of the elite—the third part of the article investigates how Christian Ashrams function as dynamic centers for ecological praxis. The last part of the article considers how contemporary Indian Christian communities can respond to the ecological challenges confronting them.


Antoniyar Kōvil: Hindu-Catholic Identity At The St. Anthony Shrine In St. Mary’S Co-Cathedral, Chennai, PJ Johnston 2016 University of Wisconsin--Eau Claire

Antoniyar Kōvil: Hindu-Catholic Identity At The St. Anthony Shrine In St. Mary’S Co-Cathedral, Chennai, Pj Johnston

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article combines ethnographic description of the practices of Hindu and Christian visitors of the St. Antony Shrine in Chennai with the observation that this material cannot be understood using the standard world religions paradigm that essentializes Christianity as exclusivistic. Drawing upon the visual and material culture of the shrine in light of premodern and Vatican II templates for inculturation and the negotiation of religious difference, the article highlights overlap between Tamil Hinduism and the Tamil Popular Catholicism of the site to argue that the beliefs and practices documented should inform descriptive and normative accounts of Catholic Christianity. Because Tamil ...


Tantric Alchemy Of The Soul: A Philosophical Analysis And Synthesis Of Jung And Kashmir Shaivism, Derek C. Wolter 2016 Oglethorpe University

Tantric Alchemy Of The Soul: A Philosophical Analysis And Synthesis Of Jung And Kashmir Shaivism, Derek C. Wolter

Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research

One of the most fascinating parts of intellectual globalization is the dialogue that occurs between two vastly removed systems of thought. One particular area of interdisciplinary dialogue that has emerged in the last century is between Western psychology and traditional Eastern religious and philosophical thought. Two particular disciplines that bear a striking resemblance ripe for comparative study are Jung’s psychology and Indian Tantrism. Some of this dialogue has already taken place, to a limited extent by Jung himself, but more so by modern pundits of Tantrism, particular Buddhist Tantrism. While some truly important work has been done in the ...


Eleven Non-Royal Jeremianic Officials Strongly Identified In Authentic, Contemporaneous Inscriptions, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk 2016 Purdue University

Eleven Non-Royal Jeremianic Officials Strongly Identified In Authentic, Contemporaneous Inscriptions, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Using established criteria, this article identifies nine persons mentioned in the book of Jeremiah and two high priests in 1 Chronicles, all of whom were contemporaries of Jeremiah. These persons are identified with virtual certainty in inscriptions of known authenticity contemporaneous with that prophet. Some these inscriptions came to light as recently as 2005 and 2008.

Authentic bullae from excavations in the City of David refer to several Hebrew people named in the Bible. These are: Gemaryahu the king’s minister and his father Shaphan the scribe, Yehukal the king’s minister and his father Shelemyahu, Gedalyahu the king’s ...


Peasant Revolts As Anti-Authoritarian Archetypes For Radical Buddhism In Modern Japan, James Shields 2016 Bucknell University

Peasant Revolts As Anti-Authoritarian Archetypes For Radical Buddhism In Modern Japan, James Shields

Faculty Journal Articles

The late Meiji period (1868-1912) witnessed the birth of various forms of “progressive” and “radical” Buddhism both within and beyond traditional Japanese Buddhist institutions. This paper examines several historical precedents for “Buddhist revolution” in East Asian—and particularly Japanese—peasant rebellions of the early modern period. I argue that these rebellions, or at least the received narratives of such, provided significant “root paradigms” for the thought and practice of early Buddhist socialists and radical Buddhists of early twentieth century Japan. Even if these narratives ended in “failure”—as, indeed, they often did—they can be understood as examples of what ...


How Liberal Korean And Taiwanese Textbooks Portray Their Countries’ “Economic Miracles”, Frances Chan 2016 Yale University

How Liberal Korean And Taiwanese Textbooks Portray Their Countries’ “Economic Miracles”, Frances Chan

Student Work

A 2015-2016 William Prize for best essay in East Asian Studies was awarded to Frances Chan (Timothy Dwight College '16) for her essay submitted to the Department of History, “How Liberal Korean and Taiwanese Textbooks Portray their Countries’ “Economic Miracles”.” (Peter C. Perdue, Professor of History, advisor.)

Frances Chan’s essay “How Liberal Korean and Taiwanese Textbooks Portray their Countries’ “Economic Miracles,” is a fascinating exploration of the creation of historical memory as seen in textbooks on the history of postwar economic development in Korea and Taiwan. Drawing on her remarkable linguistic skills in both Korean and Chinese, she compares ...


Directly Perceiving Kṛṣṇa: Accounting For Perceptual Experiences Of Deities Within The Framework Of Naturalism, Travis Chilcott 2016 Iowa State University

Directly Perceiving Kṛṣṇa: Accounting For Perceptual Experiences Of Deities Within The Framework Of Naturalism, Travis Chilcott

Travis Chilcott

Using descriptions found in Viśvanātha Cakravārtin's Mādhurya Kādambinī (c.17th century) as a case study, the author argues in this article that research in the psychological sciences offers a plausible account within the framework of naturalism for the occurrence of private perceptual experiences that can serve as a basis for what Viśvanātha and other early Gauḍīya theologians describe and appraise as direct perceptual experiences (sākṣātkāra) of Kṛṣṇa. The purpose of this investigation is to bridge the methodological divide that often separates the humanities and sciences and facilitate a richer interpretation and explanation of historical claims than what is usually ...


Relations Between Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Devotional Practices And Implicit And Explicit Anthropomorphic Reasoning About Kṛṣṇa, Travis Chilcott 2016 Iowa State University

Relations Between Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Devotional Practices And Implicit And Explicit Anthropomorphic Reasoning About Kṛṣṇa, Travis Chilcott

Travis Chilcott

Employing a narrative comprehension task procedure, this study tests the hypothesis that engagement in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava religious practices, which are aimed at cultivating a personal relationship with the Hindu deity Kṛṣṇa, predict increased implicit attribution of anthropomorphic properties to him. Contrary to our hypothesis, multiple regression analyses of data from 184 native Krishna devotees in West Bengal, India, indicated that increased engagement in these practices loaded as a tertiary predictor after education and age, such that increased practice predicted a decrease in implicit anthropomorphic reasoning about Kṛṣṇa (ß = 0.16, p < 0.03). Based on these and additional analyses of ...


Opium Eaters: Buddhism As Revolutionary Politics, James Shields 2016 Bucknell University

Opium Eaters: Buddhism As Revolutionary Politics, James Shields

Faculty Contributions to Books

There is no one, single answer to the question: What is or are ‘Buddhist politics’? Rather than seek general historical trends or broad tendencies, in this chapter I explore the meaning and implications of the modern, Western conception of ‘politics’ as understood in relation to key features of Buddhist doctrine. In particular, I pose the question of whether we might fruitfully conceive at least certain interpretations of Buddhism—or perhaps, of Dharma—as politics, rather than ‘religion’ or ‘philosophy.’ I argue that twentieth century progressive Buddhists Seno’o Girō (1889–1961) and B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) were not so ...


Religion As A Chinese Cultural Component: Culture In The Chinese Taoist Association And Confucius Institute, John D. Abercrombie 2016 Western Kentucky University

Religion As A Chinese Cultural Component: Culture In The Chinese Taoist Association And Confucius Institute, John D. Abercrombie

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This thesis examines the role of the cultural discourse on the indigenous religious traditions of China and their place within an officially sanctioned construction of Chinese culture. It starts by examining the concept of culture as it developed in the modern era, its place within the construction of national identities, and the marginalizing effects this has on certain members of national populations. Next it turns to the development of the cultural discourse within China from the mid-1800s to the Cultural Revolution, highlighting the social and legal transformations as they restricted and reframed the practice and articulation of religious traditions in ...


A Feminist Perspective On The Lack Of Full Ordination For Burmese Buddhist Nuns, Darbee Nicole Hagerty 2016 Florida International University

A Feminist Perspective On The Lack Of Full Ordination For Burmese Buddhist Nuns, Darbee Nicole Hagerty

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the position of Buddhist nuns (thila-shins) in contemporary Burmese society. The Sangha, a branch of the Burmese state, has disallowed them from seeking full ordination as bhikkhunis. Based on interviews and observations conducted in Myanmar in June-July 2015, the thesis examines the current socioeconomic status of thila-shins using a transnational feminist framework. It argues that Burmese Buddhist nuns are not simply passive victims of a patriarchal structure, but agents and actors within their own spaces who have their own agendas. The central questions are: How do thila-shins understand their social, economic, and religious position? How does ordination ...


The Inner Journey : Views From The Buddhist Tradition, Philip Novak 2016 Department of Religion and Philosophy, Dominican University of California

The Inner Journey : Views From The Buddhist Tradition, Philip Novak

Philip Novak

With The Inner Journey, Philip Novak, editor of The World’s Wisdom and coauthor of Buddhism, a Concise Introduction, selects the best work from the Buddhist tradition to be found within Parabola’s 30 years of archives. The contributors, broad and experienced, range from H. H. the Dalai Lama and Robert Thurman to Pema Chodran and Thict Nhat Hanh. Incisive interviews and cogent essays are informed by poetry and folklore. A lavish, full-color, 16-page set of plates brilliantly conveys the rich variety within the tradition. From full works of great intricacy to passages of pure insight, the collection spans the ...


Relations Between Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Devotional Practices And Implicit And Explicit Anthropomorphic Reasoning About Kṛṣṇa, Travis Chilcott 2016 Iowa State University

Relations Between Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Devotional Practices And Implicit And Explicit Anthropomorphic Reasoning About Kṛṣṇa, Travis Chilcott

Philosophy and Religious Studies Publications

Employing a narrative comprehension task procedure, this study tests the hypothesis that engagement in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava religious practices, which are aimed at cultivating a personal relationship with the Hindu deity Kṛṣṇa, predict increased implicit attribution of anthropomorphic properties to him. Contrary to our hypothesis, multiple regression analyses of data from 184 native Krishna devotees in West Bengal, India, indicated that increased engagement in these practices loaded as a tertiary predictor after education and age, such that increased practice predicted a decrease in implicit anthropomorphic reasoning about Kṛṣṇa (ß = 0.16, p < 0.03). Based on these and additional analyses of ...


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