Basic-Acceptance Teleosemantics, 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Basic-Acceptance Teleosemantics, Esteban Withrington
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
I propose an approach to naturalize semantics that combines the use-theory of meaning with teleosemantics. More specifically, I combine Horwich’s claim that the meanings of words are engendered by the acceptance of basic sentences that govern their deployment with the teleosemantic model, developed by Millikan, Papineau and Neander, according to which the meanings of symbols are related to functions determined by the history of their use and of the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for it.
Horwich’s account is general enough to offer plausible explanations of the meanings of all kinds of words and provides a plausible explanation of ...
Argument For The Absurd, 2019 Kansas State University Libraries
Argument For The Absurd, John Dotterweich
Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference
Feed, The Society of the Spectacle, and The Myth of Sisyphus help answer the question: how do you live authentically in an inauthentic world? As modernity and trends occupy us in different ways, we must decide how to use our time fruitfully. Keeping up with latest trends, news, and social media not only is exhausting but disjointing from meaningful experience. Total rejection of technology and norms can lead to isolation from those who do keep up with them. In other words, alienating your self from others leads to a lack of socialization, something that makes us happy members of society ...
Dog Breed Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks: Interpreted Through A Lockean Perspective, 2019 Lake Forest College
Dog Breed Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks: Interpreted Through A Lockean Perspective, Xavier S. Higa
The problem of fine-grained classification is one in which traditionally humans have fared better than computers. Only recently, with the advent of complex Machine Learning techniques, we have seen systems that can compete with or beat humans at this problem. In this work, we trained two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on the Stanford Dogs dataset and made them recognize dog breeds. We also analyzed the response maps of the CNNs with the aim of determining which breed-specific features the networks had learned in order to classify the images. Upon obtaining these features, we attempted to gain an insight into them ...
Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, 2019 Lesley University
Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev
Expressive Therapies Dissertations
This art-based research explores whether — and, if so, how — the process of painting, together with witnessing and reflection on the process and imagery, further an understanding of intimacy. The research also examines the conditions that favor intimacy, the obstacles to intimacy, and the particular features of artistic media, processes and reflection, through the editing of video footage, that can further the intimate experience. The participants in the study were five adults (including the researcher) between the ages of thirty and eighty who were familiar with the creation of visual art. Among them were three women and two men who vary ...
Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, 2019 Kansas State University
Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, Katie N. Schenk
Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship
This research-based essay explores the author’s experience with ADHD, as the essay’s formatting and usage of space evolves into a visual representation of the ADHD mind and questions the human capacity to identify, label, and differentiate inaccessible experiences. The common, often misinformed understanding of ADHD is disputed through in depth analyses of various brain functions. In particular, the atypical development of the executive functions housed in the ADHD person’s frontal lobe are explored through both contemporary research and personal experience, which are variously compared and contrasted to the supposed neurotypical experience. Consideration of ADHD’s lifelong stigma ...
A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Connectionism is an approach to neural-networks-based cognitive modeling that encompasses the recent deep learning movement in artificial intelligence. It came of age in the 1980s, with its roots in cybernetics and earlier attempts to model the brain as a system of simple parallel processors. Connectionist models center on statistical inference within neural networks with empirically learnable parameters, which can be represented as graphical models. More recent approaches focus on learning and inference within hierarchical generative models. Contra influential and ongoing critiques, I argue in this dissertation that the connectionist approach to cognitive science possesses in principle (and, as is becoming ...
Quantum Uncertainty Reduction (Qur) Theory Of Attended Access And Phenomenal Consciousness, 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Quantum Uncertainty Reduction (Qur) Theory Of Attended Access And Phenomenal Consciousness, Anatoly V. Nichvoloda
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
In this dissertation I defend a theory of perceptual consciousness titled “Quantum Uncertainty Reduction” (QUR) Theory of Attended Access and Phenomenal Consciousness.” Consciousness is widely perceived as a phenomenon that poses a special explanatory problem for science. The problem arises in the apparent rift between an immediate first-person acquaintance with consciousness and our lack of ability to provide an objective/scientific third-person characterization of consciousness.
I begin by reviewing philosophical ideas of Ned Block, David Chalmers and Jesse Prinz whose characterizations of consciousness provide a conceptual framework that the proposed theory aims to satisfy. Block and Chalmers argue that ...
Are Knowledge Ascriptions Sensitive To Social Context?, 2019 Boise State University
Are Knowledge Ascriptions Sensitive To Social Context?, Alexander Jackson
Reply To Carlos Montemayor & Abrol Fairweather, 2019 San Jose State University
Reply To Carlos Montemayor & Abrol Fairweather, Jonardon Ganeri
No abstract provided.
Review Of Attention, Not Self By Jonardon Ganeri, 2019 San Francisco State University
Review Of Attention, Not Self By Jonardon Ganeri, Carlos Montemayor, Abrol Fairweather
No abstract provided.
Inference, Perception, And Recognition: Kaśmīr Śaivism And The Problem Of Other Minds, 2019 University of Hawaii West Oahu
Inference, Perception, And Recognition: Kaśmīr Śaivism And The Problem Of Other Minds, Joshua Stoll
This paper will explore competing intuitions behind the problem of other minds. On the one hand, consciousness is strictly a self-manifest, first-person phenomenon: subjectivity is in each case one’s own. On the other hand, it is obvious, on the basis of their behavioral activity, that others are conscious agents despite this coming across through objective determinations. The tension between these intuitions is what grounds the problem of other minds. Attempts to navigate this problem generally neglect one of these intuitions and so are inadequate accounts of intersubjectivity. As such, and given the paradox involved in accepting each intuition, I ...
Inferring And Explaining, 2019 Portland State University
Inferring And Explaining, Jeffery L. Johnson
PDXOpen: Open Access Textbooks
Inferring and Explaining is a book in practical epistemology. It examines the notion of evidence and assumes that good evidence is the essence of rational thinking. Evidence is the cornerstone of the natural, social, and behavioral sciences. But it is equally central to almost all academic pursuits and, perhaps most importantly, to the basic need to live an intelligent and reflective life.
The book further assumes that a particular model of evidence— Inference to the Best Explanation—not only captures the essence of (good) evidence but suggests a very practical, and pedagogically useful, procedure for evidence evaluation. The book is ...
Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, 2019 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, Moran Bar-Hen-Schweiger, Avishai Henik
Chapman & Huffman review and evaluate various aspects of the notion of human superiority. In this commentary we focus on intelligence and suggest a biologically based view of intelligence applicable to humans and non-human species alike. “Mental manipulation” (e.g., mental transformations, rotations, perspective-taking), an extension of object manipulation, provides a continuous, biologically based concept for studying intelligent behavior in humans and other species and challenges the notion of human superiority.
Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, 2019 University of West Florida
Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, S. Brian Hood, Sophia Giddens
Identifying specific traits to justify according differential moral status to humans and non-human animals may be more challenging than Chapman & Huffman suggest. The reasons for this also go against their recommendation that we ought to attend to how humans and non-humans are similar. The problem lies in identifying the moral relevance of biological characteristics. There are, however, other reasons for treating non-human animals as worthy of moral consideration, such as the Precautionary Principle.
Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, 2019 Montclair State University
Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan
Humans have long viewed themselves in a favorable light. This bias is consistent with a general pattern of self-enhancement. Neural systems in the medial prefrontal cortex underlie this way of thinking, which, even when false, may be beneficial for survival. It is hence not surprising that we often disregard contrary evidence in believing ourselves superior.
Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, 2019 Florida Int'l University
Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, Sean Hermanson
The world and its troubles don't need unfounded denials of human uniqueness.
“I Am Not An Animal”, 2019 Animal Studies Repository
“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino
The answer to Chapman & Huffman’s question — “Why do we want to think humans are different?” — lies in the work of Ernest Becker and the social psychology literature known as Terror Management Theory, according to which our deep anxiety about animality and death can drive our need to feel superior to the other animals.
Mobilizing Heads And Hearts For Wildlife Conservation, 2019 York University
Mobilizing Heads And Hearts For Wildlife Conservation, Valérie A. M. Schoof, Simon L'Allier
Highlighting the shared evolutionary relationships between humans and animals — and recognizing that all species, including humans, are unique in their own way — may facilitate caring for and conserving animals by tapping into a human emotion: empathy.
Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, 2019 University of Wyoming
Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch
Chapman & Huffman suggest that judgments of human superiority underlie our cruelty to animals. It might be useful to examine how such judgments operate within the human community. Children arguably have a potential for developing “superior” capacities but are outperformed on many tasks by animals. There is a continuum of development in children’s capacities. Perhaps there are interspecies evolutionary continua too. This highlights the complexity of reasoning about humans, animals, and moral inclusion.
Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, 2019 East Tennessee State University
Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff
Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.