Was Frege A Logicist For Arithmetic?, 2018 Chapman University

#### Was Frege A Logicist For Arithmetic?, Marco Panza

*MPP Published Research*

The paper argues that Frege’s primary foundational purpose concerning arithmetic was neither that of making natural numbers logical objects, nor that of making arithmetic a part of logic, but rather that of assigning to it an appropriate place in the architectonics of mathematics and knowledge, by immersing it in a theory of numbers of concepts and making truths about natural numbers, and/or knowledge of them transparent to reason without the medium of senses and intuition.

Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, Filippos A. Papagiannopoulos

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

This dissertation examines aspects of the interplay between computing and scientific practice. The appropriate foundational framework for such an endeavour is rather *real computability* than the classical computability theory. This is so because physical sciences, engineering, and applied mathematics mostly employ functions defined in continuous domains. But, contrary to the case of computation over natural numbers, there is no universally accepted framework for real computation; rather, there are two incompatible approaches --computable analysis and BSS model--, both claiming to formalise algorithmic computation and to offer foundations for scientific computing.

The dissertation consists of three parts. In the first part, we …

Enthymemathical Proofs And Canonical Proofs In Euclid’S Plane Geometry, 2018 Universidade Federal da Bahia

#### Enthymemathical Proofs And Canonical Proofs In Euclid’S Plane Geometry, Abel Lassalle, Marco Panza

*MPP Published Research*

Since the application of Postulate I.2 in Euclid’s Elements is not uniform, one could wonder in what way should it be applied in Euclid’s plane geometry. Besides legitimizing questions like this from the perspective of a philosophy of mathematical practice, we sketch a general perspective of conceptual analysis of mathematical texts, which involves an extended notion of mathematical theory as system of authorizations, and an audience-dependent notion of proof.

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Alexander Steers-Mccrum

*Open Educational Resources*

The goal of this class is to familiarize students with formal and informal logic. Logic illustrates and explores the connections between ideas. It can help us evaluate our beliefs and make and understand arguments. Aside from its use in philosophy, logic is of particular importance in mathematics and law, and is foundational for computer science.

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Andreea Prichea

*Open Educational Resources*

The goal of the course is for students to familiarize themselves with the structure of an argument. Identify and iterate the difference between inductive and deductive, valid and invalid arguments. Learn methods to determine if an argument is valid or invalid, and be able to identify faulty arguments based on the argument's structure. The core of the course will focus on deductive arguments as they relate to moral arguments. . The student throughout the course will be exposed to arguments in natural language, and try to analyze them through the methods learned.

The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, 2018 College of the Holy Cross

#### The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, Zilin Cidre Zhou

*Summer Research Program*

I examined the use of logical fallacies in political discourse. Logical fallacies are fraudulent tricks people use in their argument to make it sound more credible while what they really do is to fool the audience. Out of more than 300 kinds of fallacies, I focused on 18 common ones by analyzing their use in debates about political issues. During conducting my research, I noted that being aware of my mental state is very important if I want to accurately detect the fallacies. Furthermore, while watching two sides debating, being impartial is as significant as staying calm. I also need …

Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, 2018 independent scholar

#### Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, Richard H. Jones

*Comparative Philosophy*

Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of emptiness, his ideas on “two truths” and language, and his general method of arguing are presented clearly by him and can be stated without paradox. That the dialetheists today can restate his beliefs in paradoxical ways does not mean that Nāgārjuna argued that way; in fact, their restatements misrepresent and undercut his arguments.

Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

#### Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, Brian Larson

*Brian Larson*

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, 2018 Fordham University

#### Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

*Student Theses 2015-Present*

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim …

Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, 2018 Bowdoin College

#### Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas Distefano

*Honors Projects*

No abstract provided.

Platonic Agonism: A Dialogical Addendum To Plato’S Sophist, 2018 Belmont University

#### Platonic Agonism: A Dialogical Addendum To Plato’S Sophist, Bennett Foster

*Sophia and Philosophia*

The following addendum to Plato’s *Sophist *was fabricated as a kind of experimental answer to a specific contextual question: What is the relation of Plato’s conception of philosophy to the practice of the *agōn *in Ancient Greece? For* *the “contest-system,”[1] to adopt Gouldner's phrase, has long been recognized as one of the salient features of Greek culture in the centuries leading up to Plato’s time.[2] Yet in the dialogues Plato never gives an explicit critique of the *agōn* the way he does other cultural phenomena, such as politics, poetry, rhetoric, education, etc. Many scholars have therefore concluded that Plato is …

Quantification And Paradox, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier

*Doctoral Dissertations*

I argue that absolutism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is possible, is to blame for both the paradoxes that arise in naive set theory and variants of these paradoxes that arise in plural logic and in semantics. The solution is restrictivism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is not possible. It is generally thought that absolutism is true and that restrictivism is not only false, but inexpressible. As a result, the paradoxes are blamed, not on illicit quantification, but on the ``logical'' conception of *set* which motivates naive set theory. The accepted solution is to replace this with the …

Review Of G. Israel, Meccanicismo. Trionfi E Miserie Della Visione Meccanica Del Mondo, 2018 Chapman University

#### Review Of G. Israel, Meccanicismo. Trionfi E Miserie Della Visione Meccanica Del Mondo, Marco Panza

*MPP Published Research*

"This is Giorgio's Israel last book, which appeared only a few weeks after his untimely death, in September 2015. For many reasons, it can be considered as his intellectual legacy, since it comes back, in a new and organic way, to many of the research topics to which he devoted his life and his many publications, which include several papers in Historia Mathematica. One of these papers, co-authored with M. Menghini, appeared in vol. 25/4, 1998 and was devoted to Poincaré's and Enriques's opposite views on qualitative analysis, which is a theme also dealt with in this book (pp. 117–122)."

Classical Logic, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Classical Logic, Stewart Shapiro, Teresa Kouri Kissel

*Philosophy Faculty Publications*

[From introductory section]

Typically, a *logic* consists of a formal or informal language together with a deductive system and/or a model-theoretic semantics. The language has components that correspond to a part of a natural language like English or Greek. The deductive system is to capture, codify, or simply record *arguments* that are *valid* for the given language, and the semantics is to capture, codify, or record the meanings, or truth-conditions for at least part of the language.

The following sections provide the basics of a typical logic, sometimes called “classical elementary logic” or “classical first-order logic”....

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Gerrit Jan Kamperdyk

*Open Educational Resources*

This course examines the principles of clear and accurate thought, including sound and valid arguments and methods of scientific reasoning in moral and political argument.

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Jesse Rappaport

*Open Educational Resources*

This course examines the principles of clear and accurate thought, including sound and valid arguments and methods of scientific reasoning in moral and political argument.

Fictionalism, Semantics, And Ontology, 2018 Sacred Heart University

#### Fictionalism, Semantics, And Ontology, Gordon Purves

*Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies Faculty Publications*

This article expands upon the argument of a previous work which defended a variational account of scientific fictions. Specifically, I show that this understanding of scientific fictions can provide guidance for realist interpretations of scientific theories and models. Depending on a model's variational properties, different ontological commitments are appropriate, providing a principled way for a realist to moderate her views according to the structural properties of a given model. This reasoning is then applied the Lee-Yang theory and Kubo-Martin-Schwinger statistics, two foundational models in quantum statistical mechanics. The Lee-Yang theory is analyzed in a way that permits a robust realist …

The Logic Of Internal Relations, 2018 Bard College

#### The Logic Of Internal Relations, Jake S. Cardillo

*Senior Projects Spring 2018*

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.

Against The Intentional Definition Of Argument, 2018 University of Richmond

#### Against The Intentional Definition Of Argument, G. C. Goddu

*Philosophy Faculty Publications*

Intentional definitions of argument, i.e. the conclusion being intended to follow from the premises, abound. Yet, there are numerous problem cases in which we appear to have arguments, but no intention. One way to try to avoid these problem cases is to appeal to acts, in which case one has to give up on the repeatability of arguments. One can keep repeatability and intentions if one resorts to act types, but then it appears that the problem cases re-emerge.

Seeing And Understanding Data: A Mini-Primary Source Project For Students Of Statistics, 2018 University of Florida

#### Seeing And Understanding Data: A Mini-Primary Source Project For Students Of Statistics, Charlotte Bolch, Beverly Wood

*Publications*

Mathematicians and scientists included drawings in their work before the first statistical graphs were invented. However, their illustrations were meant to depict quantifiable relationships rather than exposing statistical variability. The uses of pictorial representations or charts to convey trends among variable measurements dates back to at least the late 10th century. However, this means of communication did not gain the widespread appreciation it enjoys today until technological advances in the 21st century stimulated the growth of a new field, data visualization. The mini-Primary Source Project (PSP) *Seeing and Understanding Data *provides students the opportunity to explore the evolution of statistical …