From Solvability To Formal Decidability: Revisiting Hilbert’S “Non-Ignorabimus”, 2019 Paderborn University

#### From Solvability To Formal Decidability: Revisiting Hilbert’S “Non-Ignorabimus”, Andrea Reichenberger

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

The topic of this article is Hilbert’s axiom of solvability, that is, his conviction of the solvability of every mathematical problem by means of a finite number of operations. The question of solvability is commonly identified with the decision problem. Given this identification, there is not the slightest doubt that Hilbert’s conviction was falsified by Gödel’s proof and by the negative results for the decision problem. On the other hand, Gödel’s theorems do offer a solution, albeit a negative one, in the form of an impossibility proof. In this sense, Hilbert’s optimism may still be justified. Here I argue that …

Recapture, Transparency, Negation And A Logic For The Catuṣkoṭi, 2019 University of St Andrews

#### Recapture, Transparency, Negation And A Logic For The Catuṣkoṭi, Adrian Kreutz

*Comparative Philosophy*

*The recent literature on **Nāgārjuna**’s **catuṣkoṭi centres around Jay Garfield’s (2009) and Graham Priest’s (2010) interpretation. It is an open discussion to what extent their interpretation is an adequate model of the logic for the catuskoti, and the **Mu**̄**la-madhyamaka-**k**ā**rik**ā**. **Priest and Garfield try to make sense of the contradictions within the catuskoti by appeal to a series of lattices – orderings of truth-values, supposed to model the path to enlightenment. They use Anderson & Belnaps's (1975) framework of First Degree Entailment. Cotnoir (2015) has argued that the lattices of Priest and Garfield …*

Susan Stebbing, 2019 Old Dominion University

#### Susan Stebbing, Teresa Kouri Kissel

*Philosophy Faculty Publications*

Susan Stebbing (1885-1943) was a founder of Analysis and had a large influence on philosophy during the early 20th century. Recently, the work of Michael Beaney (2000), Siobhan Chapman (2013) and Frederique Janssen- Lauret (2017), amongst others, has begun a resurgence of interest in Stebbing. This paper serves as a brief introduction to some of the major features of her philosophical work.

Logical Instrumentalism And Concatenation, 2019 Old Dominion University

#### Logical Instrumentalism And Concatenation, Teresa Kouri Kissel

*Philosophy Faculty Publications*

Logical pluralism is the theory that there is more than one right logic. Logical instrumentalism is the view that a logic is a correct logic if it can be used to fruitfully pursue some deductive inquiry. Logical instrumentalism is a version of logical pluralism, since more than one logic can be used fruitfully. In this paper, I will show that a logical instrumentalist must accept linear logic as a correct logic, since linear logic is useful for studying natural language syntax. I further show that this means that the logical instrumentalist must accept a wide range of connectives, in particular …

Counterfactual Conditional Analysis Using The Centipede Game, 2019 Claremont McKenna College

#### Counterfactual Conditional Analysis Using The Centipede Game, Ahmed Bilal

*CMC Senior Theses*

The Backward Induction strategy for the Centipede Game leads us to a counterfactual reasoning paradox, The Centipede Game paradox. The counterfactual reasoning proving the backward induction strategy for the game appears to rely on the players in the game not choosing that very same backward induction strategy. The paradox is a general paradox that applies to backward induction reasoning in sequential, perfect information games. Therefore, the paradox is not only problematic for the Centipede Game, but it also affects counterfactual reasoning solutions in games similar to the Centipede Game. The Centipede Game is a prime illustration of this paradox in …

An Introduction To Logic: From Everyday Life To Formal Systems, 2019 Smith College

#### An Introduction To Logic: From Everyday Life To Formal Systems, Albert Mosley, Eulalio Baltazar

*Open Educational Resources: Textbooks*

An introduction to the discipline of logic covering subjects from the structures of arguments, classical and modern logic, categorical and inductive inferences, to informal fallacies.

- Over 30 years of development provides a sound empirical based pedagogy throughout the text.

- Examples in ordinary language using familiar examples avoids the suggestion of an alien cultural imposition.

- A focus on the basic representational techniques of classical and modern logic.

- Students introduced to basic concepts of set theory, using Venn diagrams to represent statements and evaluate arguments.

- Students introduced to basic concepts of propositional logic and the use of truth-tables.

- Students introduced to basic …

Frege's Constraint And The Nature Of Frege's Foundational Program, 2018 Chapman University

#### Frege's Constraint And The Nature Of Frege's Foundational Program, Marco Panza, Andrea Sereni

*Philosophy Faculty Articles and Research*

Recent discussions on Fregean and neo-Fregean foundations for arithmetic and real analysis pay much attention to what is called either ‘Application Constraint’ ( ) or ‘Frege Constraint’ ( ), the requirement that a mathematical theory be so outlined that it immediately allows explaining for its applicability. We distinguish between two constraints, which we, respectively, denote by the latter of these two names, by showing how generalizes Frege’s views while comes closer to his original conceptions. Different authors diverge on the interpretation of and on whether it applies to definitions of both natural and real numbers. Our aim is to trace …

Call Thee Ishmael, 2018 Belmont University

#### Call Thee Ishmael, Mark Backus

*Sophia and Philosophia*

“*Moby-Dick* is a strangely compelling book.”[1]* *Scholarship and commentary help the reader understand why Ishmael’s tale is so compelling, but not always why it is *strangely* so. The perennial search for a master key to unlock the strangeness of *Moby-Dick* beneath its infinite layers has added more mesmerizing layers, but if many of the proposed keys fit into the lock of *Moby-Dick*, why is there yet a sense that none have completely opened “the great flood-gates?” (*Moby-Dick* 22, hereafter “MD”). Is it because none of them are right, or that they are only partly right, or that …

Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Computing, Modelling, And Scientific Practice: Foundational Analyses And Limitations, Filippos A. Papagiannopoulos

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

This dissertation examines aspects of the interplay between computing and scientific practice. The appropriate foundational framework for such an endeavour is rather *real computability* than the classical computability theory. This is so because physical sciences, engineering, and applied mathematics mostly employ functions defined in continuous domains. But, contrary to the case of computation over natural numbers, there is no universally accepted framework for real computation; rather, there are two incompatible approaches --computable analysis and BSS model--, both claiming to formalise algorithmic computation and to offer foundations for scientific computing.

The dissertation consists of three parts. In the first part, we …

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Alexander Steers-Mccrum

*Open Educational Resources*

The goal of this class is to familiarize students with formal and informal logic. Logic illustrates and explores the connections between ideas. It can help us evaluate our beliefs and make and understand arguments. Aside from its use in philosophy, logic is of particular importance in mathematics and law, and is foundational for computer science.

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Andreea Prichea

*Open Educational Resources*

The goal of the course is for students to familiarize themselves with the structure of an argument. Identify and iterate the difference between inductive and deductive, valid and invalid arguments. Learn methods to determine if an argument is valid or invalid, and be able to identify faulty arguments based on the argument's structure. The core of the course will focus on deductive arguments as they relate to moral arguments. . The student throughout the course will be exposed to arguments in natural language, and try to analyze them through the methods learned.

The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, 2018 College of the Holy Cross

#### The Logical Fallacies In Political Discourse, Zilin Cidre Zhou

*Summer Research Program*

I examined the use of logical fallacies in political discourse. Logical fallacies are fraudulent tricks people use in their argument to make it sound more credible while what they really do is to fool the audience. Out of more than 300 kinds of fallacies, I focused on 18 common ones by analyzing their use in debates about political issues. During conducting my research, I noted that being aware of my mental state is very important if I want to accurately detect the fallacies. Furthermore, while watching two sides debating, being impartial is as significant as staying calm. I also need …

Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, 2018 independent scholar

#### Dialetheism, Paradox, And Nāgārjuna’S Way Of Thinking, Richard H. Jones

*Comparative Philosophy*

Nāgārjuna’s doctrine of emptiness, his ideas on “two truths” and language, and his general method of arguing are presented clearly by him and can be stated without paradox. That the dialetheists today can restate his beliefs in paradoxical ways does not mean that Nāgārjuna argued that way; in fact, their restatements misrepresent and undercut his arguments.

Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

#### Flag-Waving: Visual Arguments, Verbal Reconstruction, And Speaker Intentions, Brian Larson

*Brian Larson*

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, 2018 Fordham University

#### Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

*Student Theses 2015-Present*

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim …

Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, 2018 Bowdoin College

#### Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas Distefano

*Honors Projects*

No abstract provided.

Platonic Agonism: A Dialogical Addendum To Plato’S Sophist, 2018 Belmont University

#### Platonic Agonism: A Dialogical Addendum To Plato’S Sophist, Bennett Foster

*Sophia and Philosophia*

The following addendum to Plato’s *Sophist *was fabricated as a kind of experimental answer to a specific contextual question: What is the relation of Plato’s conception of philosophy to the practice of the *agōn *in Ancient Greece? For* *the “contest-system,”[1] to adopt Gouldner's phrase, has long been recognized as one of the salient features of Greek culture in the centuries leading up to Plato’s time.[2] Yet in the dialogues Plato never gives an explicit critique of the *agōn* the way he does other cultural phenomena, such as politics, poetry, rhetoric, education, etc. Many scholars have therefore concluded that Plato is …

Quantification And Paradox, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier

*Doctoral Dissertations*

I argue that absolutism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is possible, is to blame for both the paradoxes that arise in naive set theory and variants of these paradoxes that arise in plural logic and in semantics. The solution is restrictivism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is not possible.

It is generally thought that absolutism is true and that restrictivism is not only false, but inexpressible. As a result, the paradoxes are blamed, not on illicit quantification, but on the ``logical'' conception of *set* which motivates naive set theory. The accepted solution is to replace this with the …

Classical Logic, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Classical Logic, Stewart Shapiro, Teresa Kouri Kissel

*Philosophy Faculty Publications*

[From introductory section]

Typically, a *logic* consists of a formal or informal language together with a deductive system and/or a model-theoretic semantics. The language has components that correspond to a part of a natural language like English or Greek. The deductive system is to capture, codify, or simply record *arguments* that are *valid* for the given language, and the semantics is to capture, codify, or record the meanings, or truth-conditions for at least part of the language.

The following sections provide the basics of a typical logic, sometimes called “classical elementary logic” or “classical first-order logic”....

Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

#### Zero Textbook Cost Syllabus For Phi 1600 (Logic And Moral Reasoning), Gerrit Jan Kamperdyk

*Open Educational Resources*

This course examines the principles of clear and accurate thought, including sound and valid arguments and methods of scientific reasoning in moral and political argument.