Non-Rational Persons And The Original Position: A Rawlsian Defense Of Animal Citizenship, 2018 University of Iowa
Non-Rational Persons And The Original Position: A Rawlsian Defense Of Animal Citizenship, Michael Corazza
University of Iowa Honors Theses
John Rawls’s approach to political philosophy, like other contractarian theories, is non-sympathetic to those who don’t qualify as moral persons. Mark Rowlands challenges this position in “Contractarianism and Animal Rights” by arguing that species, as well as strength, class, intelligence et al. is a natural asset that ought to be hidden behind the veil of ignorance. As such, parties in the original position must extend the principles of justice to non-human animals as a matter of personal interest. I argue that criticisms of Rowlands’ claim are based on a fundamental misunderstanding of personhood, and so what it ...
Leader Self-Perceptions Of Ethics In And Out Of The Workplace And Personal Trustworthiness, 2018 Walden University
Leader Self-Perceptions Of Ethics In And Out Of The Workplace And Personal Trustworthiness, Marcia W. Vanderwood
Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies
Ethical breaches in many organizations can be traced to failures in ethical leadership, which undermine trust. If a leader's ethical behavior in their private life and settings is perceived as influencing workplace ethics, it may in turn affect organizational trust levels and the development of trust. A quantitative study based on the social learning and moral theory was conducted to determine whether a difference exists between a leader's self-perceptions of their ethical behaviors inside and outside of the workplace, and whether it affects their perceived personal trustworthiness. Participants' (N = 94) scores on work and nonwork versions of the ...
Continuum And Temporality, 2018 University of San Francisco
Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus
I fully support the continuum proposed in the target article and argue along the same lines that we should be suspicious of drawing any strict borders between human and non-human animals. Since we can say very little with absolute certainty about human intentions regarding suicide, we have no certainty about the intentions of non-human animals. Although I am very sympathetic to Peña-Guzmán’s overall argument, I suggest that time could be taken into consideration as well.
Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", 2018 Kent State University - Tuscarawas Campus
Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger
Increasing understanding of the impressive cognitive and social capacities of nonhuman animals suggests the possibility that they may sometimes commit suicide. Such notions tend to be dismissed as “anthropomorphism.” That interpretive hazard, I argue, must be weighed against the opposite hazard of “anthropodenial” — “the a priori rejection of shared characteristics between humans and animals” (de Waal 2006). If animals do commit suicide, how often is it motivated precisely by the impact of humans on animal life?
An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, 2018 Simon Fraser University
An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine
Peña-Guzmán’s discussion of suicide in nonhuman animals has broad implications. In this commentary, I focus on the logical relation between suicide and intention. Proximate cause must be distinguished from ultimate function in explanations of suicide. I briefly discuss two adaptationist accounts of suicidal behavior.
Interpreting The Republic As A Protreptic Dialogue, 2018 University of Kentucky
Interpreting The Republic As A Protreptic Dialogue, Peter Nielson Moore
Theses and Dissertations--Philosophy
Protreptic is a form of rhetoric, textual and oral in form, which exhorts its recipients to reorient their lives both morally and intellectually. Plato frequently portrays Socrates' use of this rhetoric with interlocutors who are enticed by the moral and political views of figures from Athens' intellectual culture. During these conversations Socrates attempts to persuade his interlocutors to reorient their lives in a way that conforms more closely to his own moral and intellectual practice of philosophy. Plato's depiction of protreptic, however, also exerts a protreptic effect on readers of his dialogues. Plato's writing thus performs a dual ...
Socrates' Satisfied Pigs, 2018 Pepperdine University
Socrates' Satisfied Pigs, Jacob Zimbelman
At the start of Republic’s book II (358e-361d), Glaucon renews Thrasymachus’s challenge to Socrates with a robust account of the origin of justice, arguing that justice is only instrumentally desirable for the end of a good reputation, and that everyone would choose to be unjust were there no legal or social consequences. Socrates soon responds to this narrative account in kind (370c-372d), telling the story of an idyllic city whose people live simply, “in peace and good health,” and contribute to one another’s welfare by performing the task for which they are best suited. Socrates praises this ...
Learning To Live And Love Virtuously, 2018 Claremont Colleges
Learning To Live And Love Virtuously, Henry Deruff
CMC Senior Theses
John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant authored two of the most famous pieces of work in ethical theory (Utilitarianism and Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, respectively), yet both fail for various reasons to give us direction by way of living good lives. This thesis begins by outlining those shortcomings, before offering Aristotelian virtue ethics as the solution. Virtue ethics, as conceived by Aristotle, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Julia Annas, delineates a process – grounded in our real lives – by which we may improve as people and therefore flourish, or live good, moral lives: the habituation of the virtues. Importantly, virtue ethics ...
Can Nondolphins Commit Suicide?, 2018 San Francisco State University
Can Nondolphins Commit Suicide?, David M. Peña-Guzmán
This Response addresses the scientific and philosophical criticisms of my 2017 target article “Can nonhuman animals commit suicide?” It defends my key claims and explores topics (such as animal judgment, animal theory of mind, and the evolution of suicide) that did not appear in the original article. It also points out areas in which further research is needed and concludes that we should be wary of accusations of “anthropomorphism” in debates about animal suicide.
Transforming Usury Into Finance: Financialization And The Ethics Of Debt, 2018 Iowa State University
Transforming Usury Into Finance: Financialization And The Ethics Of Debt, Kate Padgett-Walsh
Philosophy and Religious Studies Publications
This article examines the conceptual transformation of what was once considered usury into finance. To counter traditional arguments that usury was exploitative and unnatural, early modern theorists reconceptualized debt as a form of investment for both borrowers and lenders. Today, this ethical justification of debt as an investment underlies the rhetoric of finance and financialization. Close examination of the realities of contemporary financialized debt, however, reveal that much of this rhetoric is misleading and false. While the rhetoric of finance is unrelentingly oriented toward the future, the lived reality of debt is one of being constrained and haunted by the ...
Ideology In Literature And Literature As Ideology: Totalitarian And Reactionary Appropriation Of Resistant Texts, Huntley Hughes
This thesis seeks to explore the means by which nominally or potentially resistant texts are appropriated into violent or exploitative political structures for propaganda and profit. In the first chapter two pre-soviet Russian novels closely associated with the radical tradition are examined, through the lens of literary analysis, in order to uncover the ways in which ideologically egalitarian revolutionary movements can degenerate into authoritarian regimes. The second chapter is concerned with a Welsh text, How Green Was My Valley, which, despite being concerned with the conditions of the Welsh mining class, utilizes the narrative form of childhood recollection to insidiously ...
Disarming “Nature” As A Weapon: A Queer Ecosemiotic Reimagining Of Futurity And Environmental Ethics Through Memoir, Sam Lauer
In this thesis, I posit that the need for an active, conscious, and radical queering of ecocriticism as a literary and cultural theory has arisen in light of the postmodern problematization of “nature” and the “natural,” along with the queerness of society, culture, and science. The way we understand “nature” (in life and in texts), whether of physical environments, inherent selfhood, or normalcy, begs to be appropriately informed by discourses and realities of queerness in order for both social and environmental healing to take place. I have analyzed three works of queer creative nonfiction—memoirs—to illuminate the ways in ...
Building An Ethical Small Group (Chapter 9 Of Meeting The Ethical Challenges Of Leadership), 2018 George Fox University
Building An Ethical Small Group (Chapter 9 Of Meeting The Ethical Challenges Of Leadership), Craig E. Johnson
Faculty Publications - School of Business
This chapter examines ethical leadership in the small-group context. To help create groups that brighten rather than darken the lives of participants, leaders must foster individual ethical accountability among group members, ensure ethical group interaction, avoid moral pitfalls, and establish ethical relationships with other groups.
In his metaphor of the leader's light or shadow, Parker Palmer emphasizes that leaders shape the settings or contexts around them. According to Palmer, leaders are people who have "an unusual degree of power to create the conditions under which other people must live and move and have their being, conditions that can either ...
The Free Exercise Clause, Minority Faiths, And The Possibility Of Religious Independence After Rawlsian Liberalism, 2018 University of Kentucky
The Free Exercise Clause, Minority Faiths, And The Possibility Of Religious Independence After Rawlsian Liberalism, David Charles Scott
Theses and Dissertations--Philosophy
The conversation to which my dissertation belongs is that which preoccupied John Rawls in Political Liberalism, namely: (1) how it is possible that a religiously and morally pluralistic culture like ours lives cooperatively from one generation to the next, and (2) The extent to which religious or moral convictions are appropriate bases for political action. My three-essay dissertation is about aspects of this investigation that affect minority or non-mainstream religious and cultural groups, since legal institutions, and theoretical models of them (such as Rawls’s and Ronald Dworkin’s) are in many ways ill-suited to accommodate their ways of life ...
Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi
Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti
Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.
Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, 2018 Western Sydney University
Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley
Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.
Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, 2018 Central Washington University
Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold
Claims are often made about behaviors being unique to humans; the evidence usually shows they are not. Sign language studies on chimpanzees may provide a useful model for comparative studies of suicide. A productive approach to comparative studies is to focus on observable behaviors rather than getting lost in the pitfalls of vague definitions and changing measures.
Theology, Phenomenology, And The Divine In King Lear, 2018 Chapman University
Theology, Phenomenology, And The Divine In King Lear, Kent R. Lehnhof
English Faculty Books and Book Chapters
"In what follows, then, I would like to think through Levinas's ideas on transcendence and ethics in such a way as to map out a new pathway for approaching Shakespeare's great tragedy. As unorthodox as it may sound, I propose to shed light on the darkling religiosity of King Lear by turning-not to the theological doctrines of early modem Christians-but to the postmodern ethics of a twentieth-century Jew."
On The Military’S Normative Commitment To Assist In Revolution, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
On The Military’S Normative Commitment To Assist In Revolution, Sebastian Awatramani
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Locke held that the People reserve a right of revolution in the case that a government egregiously violates the social contract to such an extent that it renders itself illegitimate. At the time of his writing, revolution was a potentially feasible endeavor insofar as the technological war making capabilities of a citizenry were on, or at least on something close to, equal footing with those of the government. As technology advanced over the following centuries, however, a disparity between the war making capability of advanced states and their citizenry arose, wherein the governments of modern, advanced states gained access to ...
Lying In Politics And The Rise Of Post-Truth: Philosophical Perspectives And Current U.S. Challenges, 2018 Connecticut College
Lying In Politics And The Rise Of Post-Truth: Philosophical Perspectives And Current U.S. Challenges, Cecilia Bole
Philosophy Honors Papers
No abstract provided.