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The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] Relatively little has been written about unemployment relief during the period between the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 and the adoption of national unemployment insurance in 1911. This study is an attempt to help fill the gap in the literature. It examines the changing roles played by poor relief, private charity, trade unions, and public employment in the lives of the urban unemployed during cyclical downturns from 1834 to 1911. The story that emerges offers no support for a "Whig theory of welfare." Public assistance for the unemployed was more generous, and more certain, from ...


The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith 2011 Cornell University

The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith

George R. Boyer

This essay on labor economics examines neoclassical theory's rise to ascendancy following the second World War, with a secondary focus on the relative decline but continued influence of institutionalist economic theory. The authors describe the evolution of institutional and neoclassical theory from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, examine some early intellectual debates between the two camps, briefly describe the work of neoclassical labor economics pioneers, and look at major developments over the past 30 years. They argue that neoclassical economists' increasing intellectual breadth and influence in public policy have led them to pay closer attention to issues that ...


The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published 150 years ago in London in February 1848, is one of the most influential and widely-read documents of the past two centuries. The historian A. J. P. Taylor (1967, p. 7) has called it a "holy book," and contends that because of it, "everyone thinks differently about politics and society." And yet, despite its enormous influence in the 20th century, the Manifesto is very much a period piece, a document of what was called the "hungry" 1840s. It is hard to imagine it being written in any other decade of the 19th ...


Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The payment of child allowances to laborers with large families was widespread in early nineteenth-century England. This paper tests Thomas Malthus's hypothesis that child allowances caused the birth rate to increase. A cross-sectional regression model is estimated to explain variations in birth rates across parishes in 1826-30. Birth rates are found to be related to child allowances, income, and the availability of housing, as Malthus contended. The paper concludes by examining the role played by the adoption of child allowances after 1795 in the fertility increase of the early nineteenth century.


The Poor Law, Migration, And Economic Growth, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

The Poor Law, Migration, And Economic Growth, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The loss to the English economy caused by decreased migration resulting from relief payments to agricultural laborers is estimated. I conclude that, at worst, the Poor Law had a small negative impact on national product. If poor relief and wages were substitutes, the Poor Law may have had a positive impact on capital formation and economic growth.


What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

The article examines the development of the insurance function of trade unions. It analyzes how such policies worked, and why union benefit packages differed across occupations. It also addresses the impact of insurance policies on union organization. Insurance benefits increased the ability of unions to attract and retain members. They did not, however, significantly increase the power of union leaders relative to employers or union rank and file.


Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer 2011 University of Essex

Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

During the ‘golden age’ of the 1950s and 1960s unemployment in Britain averaged 2 per cent. This was far lower than ever before or since and a number of hypotheses have been put forward to account for this unique period in labour market history. But there has been little attempt to isolate precisely how the determinants of wage setting and unemployment differed before, during and after the golden age. We estimate a two-equation model over the whole period from 1872 to 1999 using a newly constructed set of long-run labour market data. We find that the structure of real wage ...


Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer 2011 Cornell University

Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

This paper examines the determinants of migration from 19 southern counties to six major destinations in England and Wales from 1861-70 to 1891-1900. I find that, while the size of origin-destination wage gaps and the distance between origin and destination areas were important determinants of migration flows, as expected, migration was also strongly influenced by the number of previous migrants from an origin county living in a destination. The assistance provided by previous migrants to friends and relatives contemplating migration led to a perpetuation of earlier migration patterns, and helps to explain the continued dominance of London as a destination ...


New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton 2011 Cornell University

New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton

George R. Boyer

We present new estimates of the British industrial unemployment rate for 1870- 1913, which improve on the Board of Trade's prior estimates. We use similar sources, but our series includes additional industrial sectors, allows for short-time working, and aggregates the various sectors using appropriate labor-force weights from the census. The resulting index suggests a rate of industrial unemployment that was generally higher, but less volatile, than the board's index. We then adjust our series to an economywide basis, and construct a consistent time series of overall unemployment for 1870-1999.


American Paratexts: Experimentation And Anxiety In The Early United States, Joshua Kopperman Ratner 2011 University of Pennsylvania

American Paratexts: Experimentation And Anxiety In The Early United States, Joshua Kopperman Ratner

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

“American Paratexts” argues that prefaces, dedications, footnotes, and postscripts were sites of aggressive courtship and manipulation of readers in early nineteenth-century American literature. In the paratexts of novels, poems, and periodicals, readers faced pedantic complaints about the literary marketplace, entreaties for purchases described as patriotic duty, and interpersonal spats couched in the language of selfless literary nationalism. Authors such as Washington Irving, John Neal, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and William Wells Brown turned paratexts into sites of instructional meta-commentary, using imperative and abusive reader-address to unsettle and then reorient American readers, simultaneously insulting them for insufficiently adventuresome reading habits and declaring better ...


Nancy As A Center Of Art Nouveau Architecture, 1895-1914, Peter Clericuzio 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Nancy As A Center Of Art Nouveau Architecture, 1895-1914, Peter Clericuzio

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The small city of Nancy, France, is arguably the center where Art Nouveau architecture had the most lasting impact. Nancy’s Art Nouveau was a divergent form of modernity that was defined by regionalism and a distinct sense of place, which its proponents championed as the key elements of an authentic architecture, allowing Nancy to challenge Paris as the dominant French artistic center in the two decades before World War I.

Most of Nancy’s architects were graduates of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and grounded in the language of classicism and its associated professional standards. Much of Nancy ...


The Olive Tree, Vol. 8 Number 2, 2000, 2011 The University of Maine

The Olive Tree, Vol. 8 Number 2, 2000

The Olive Tree

The Winter 2000 issue of The Olive Tree features articles about library projects, collections, technological innovations, and events at Fogler Library, University of Maine.


The Olive Tree, Vol. 8 Number 1, 2000, 2011 The University of Maine

The Olive Tree, Vol. 8 Number 1, 2000

The Olive Tree

The Summer 2000 issue of The Olive Tree features articles about library projects, collections, technological innovations, and events at Fogler Library, University of Maine.


Pedagogy In Vietnamese International Schools, Robert Wilson 2011 Virginia Commonwealth University

Pedagogy In Vietnamese International Schools, Robert Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is a look at the evolutionary journey of applying dramatic pedagogy in a foreign land. It does not by any means specifically pertain to theatrical elements, but everything herein is a direct reflection on the training I received as a theatre practitioner. The last four years have also molded and defined what it means to be an American theatre student living, experiencing, and working in a land that is in many senses in infancy as a nation.


On The Missing Role Of The Editor In The Compilation And Publication Of Bilingual Dictionaries, Gang Zhao 2011 East China Normal University

On The Missing Role Of The Editor In The Compilation And Publication Of Bilingual Dictionaries, Gang Zhao

Gang Zhao

No abstract provided.


Why Animal Ethics Committees Don't Work, Denise Russell 2011 University of Wollongong

Why Animal Ethics Committees Don't Work, Denise Russell

Between the Species

Abstract

Animal ethics committees have been set up in many countries as a way to scrutinize animal experimentation and to assure the public that if animals are used in research then it is for a worthwhile cause and suffering is kept to a minimum. The ideals of Refinement, Reduction and Replacement are commonly upheld. However while refinement and reduction receive much attention in animal ethics committees the replacement of animals is much more difficult to incorporate into the committees’ deliberations. At least in Australia there are certain structural reasons for this but it is likely that most of the reasons ...


Lunes Niuyorkino, Etnairis Rivera 2011 University of South Florida

Lunes Niuyorkino, Etnairis Rivera

Revista Surco Sur

No abstract provided.


Calendario, Miguel Reyes 2011 University of South Florida

Calendario, Miguel Reyes

Revista Surco Sur

No abstract provided.


Mañana, Mañana..., Silvia Cuevas-Morales 2011 University of South Florida

Mañana, Mañana..., Silvia Cuevas-Morales

Revista Surco Sur

No abstract provided.


Cuatro Poetas Cubanos Transterrados, Madeline Cámara 2011 University of South Florida

Cuatro Poetas Cubanos Transterrados, Madeline Cámara

Revista Surco Sur

Presenta a cuatro poetas cubanos de la diáspora, que radican en Europa, donde encuentra una continuidad del sentimiento de nostalgia y arraigo a los orígenes, con poetas cubanos también transterrados a lo largo del siglo XIX y XX. Al señalar el peso de las relaciones sociales y políticas que determinaron su condición de exiliados, dice la autora: Pero ellos son poetas y ya sabemos que el oficio no está institucionalizado porque el poema no tiene casa, es más, no requiere Casa más allá de la Metáfora que él mismo cre. Su autonomía es su libertad.


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