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Reimagining The Collective: Black Popular Music And Recording Studio Innovation, 1970-1990, Will Fulton 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Reimagining The Collective: Black Popular Music And Recording Studio Innovation, 1970-1990, Will Fulton

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines developments in the production practices of black popular music in the recording studio from 1970 to 1990. The year 1970 marked a transition in the recording practice of popular music that had a distinct impact on styles marketed as R&B, soul, and funk. Multitracking in the 1950s and 1960s had paved the way for a transformed production process, one initiated by Les Paul’s and Sidney Bechet’s overdubbing experiments in the 1940s. The collective sound of instrumentalists and vocalists heard on records no longer resulted from live-to-tape recordings of group performances, but was increasingly the product of constructed representations, as separate layered events were cut to multitrack tape.

When mixed together, these overdubbed tracks presented the listener with the impression of collective, interactive performances. Features central to the ethos of R&B music making – vocals in call and response, instruments in apparent rhythmic dialogues, and funky syncopation usually resulting from interactive group dynamism – were increasingly the product of the technologically mediated process of overdubbing, and performed often by one musician singing all of the parts or layering several instruments. By 1990, in part due to the popularity of newly developed drum machines, MIDI sequencers, samplers, and digital synthesizers, to record collectively in R&B-based black popular music was the exception rather than the norm.

This study considers new practices of record production that developed in this era of multitrack recording and electronic experimentation through an examination of four case studies: Stevie Wonder’s recordings in the early 1970s; Prince’s recordings from the late 1970s to the mid 1980s; Michael Jackson’s composition and recording process from this same period; and the mid-to-late 1980s sampling and sequencing processes of Public Enemy’s Bomb Squad production collective. The producers of these recordings, well aware of the collective ethos of earlier black music styles, conceived imaginative ways ...


The Effects Of Diegetic And Nondiegetic Music On Viewers’ Interpretations Of A Film Scene, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Siu-Lan Tan, Matthew P. Spackman 2017 Loyola University Chicago

The Effects Of Diegetic And Nondiegetic Music On Viewers’ Interpretations Of A Film Scene, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Siu-Lan Tan, Matthew P. Spackman

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Previous studies have shown that pairing a film excerpt with different musical soundtracks can change the audience’s interpretation of the scene. This study examined the effects of mixing the same piece of music at different levels of loudness in a film soundtrack to suggest diegetic music (“source music,” presented as if arising from within the fictional world of the film characters) or to suggest nondiegetic music (a “dramatic score” accompanying the scene but not originating from within the fictional world). Adjusting the level of loudness significantly altered viewers’ perceptions of many elements that are fundamental to the storyline, including ...


Eighteenth Century Women And The Business Of Making Glass Music, Kate M. Hepworth 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Eighteenth Century Women And The Business Of Making Glass Music, Kate M. Hepworth

History

During the relatively short period from the mid-to-late eighteenth century when glass musical instruments were manufactured and gained popularity, several women made names for themselves in the realm of avant-garde musical performance. The lives of three female glass instrument players: Anne Ford, Marianne Davies, and Marianne Kirchgassner, show how these successful performer-entrepreneurs operated in an age of emerging feminine public identity. Their journeys reveal much about the gender dimensions of the age, the role of music in the modern era, the consumption of it, and their approach to business. The financial opportunities presented to women looking to challenge the limitations ...


From The Concert Hall To The Cinema: The Journey Of The Classical American Sound, Rebecca Stegall 2017 Liberty University

From The Concert Hall To The Cinema: The Journey Of The Classical American Sound, Rebecca Stegall

Masters Theses

American classical music has enjoyed a long-standing presence around the world as its own entity within the classical music genre. As early as the 1920s, American classical music has had its own unique sound. The early 20th Century was a time of musical experimentation and social unrest in America. Due to its relative newness and experimentation by numerous composers, identifying the defining characteristics of American music, an experimental music itself, became difficult and ambiguous. Also, the continuation of American classical music became increasingly problematic as classical music was replaced in popular culture by other genres of music. The research for ...


The Partimento Tradition In The Shadow Of Enlightenment Thought, Deborah Longenecker 2017 Cedarville University

The Partimento Tradition In The Shadow Of Enlightenment Thought, Deborah Longenecker

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

How did Enlightenment ideals influence seventeenth-century music theory and composition pedagogy? This article investigates the relationship between partimento pedagogy and Rameau’s music theories as influenced by Enlightenment thought. Current research on partimento has revealed its importance in Neapolitan music schools of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Along with counterpoint, partimento was a core subject in the study of composition in the Neapolitan schools; however, as pedagogy and theory began to be influenced by Enlightenment ideals such as the scientific method or a preference for clear systemization, the partimento tradition began to wane. Juxtaposing the Enlightenment ideals of Rameau’s ...


Out Of The Shadows: Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn, And The Will To Persist, Juella Baltonado 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Out Of The Shadows: Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn, And The Will To Persist, Juella Baltonado

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Clara Schumann and Fanny Mendelssohn are known most commonly for their associations with their male counterparts, and often have their identities and accomplishments overshadowed by these men. This thesis shines a light on these women, uncovering the struggles with gender, agency, and societal expectations.


Robert Burns's Hand In 'Ay Waukin, O': The Roy Manuscript And William Tytler's Dissertation (1779), Patrick G. Scott 2017 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Robert Burns's Hand In 'Ay Waukin, O': The Roy Manuscript And William Tytler's Dissertation (1779), Patrick G. Scott

Studies in Scottish Literature

Discusses Robert Burns's sources and manuscripts for his expansion of the song "Ay waukin, O," first published as song 213 in James Johnson's Scots Musical Museum, III (1790); highlights an often neglected and misdated printed item, William Tytler’s Dissertation, as Burns's source for two of the four stanzas; considers the two full-length manuscripts, identifying one as being an Antique Smith forgery, and detailing the provenance and purpose, of the other, now at the Birthplace Museum; examines and reproduces the Roy manuscript and its pencilled additions; and so clarifies the relationship among the three genuine manuscripts to ...


Entrepreneurship And Pr Skills For Music Students, Tomás Cotik 2017 Portland State University

Entrepreneurship And Pr Skills For Music Students, Tomás Cotik

Music Faculty Publications and Presentations

In a successful ensemble, not only do musicians need to spendcountless hours mastering their instruments and improving their ensemble playing, they also need to be entrepreneurial, media savvy, and their own managers and promoters—in otherwords, able to deal with a variety of non-musical endeavors.


A Musical Crusade: Reviving The Music Of Berlioz’S Benvenuto Cellini Through A Comparative Statistical, Pedagogical, And Theoretical Analysis, Jessica R. Spafford 2017 James Madison University

A Musical Crusade: Reviving The Music Of Berlioz’S Benvenuto Cellini Through A Comparative Statistical, Pedagogical, And Theoretical Analysis, Jessica R. Spafford

Dissertations

Abstract

Much of the operatic music of the eccentric French composer Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) is overlooked, especially from his first full opera Benvenuto Cellini. This is due in part to many misconceptions surrounding Berlioz’s vocal compositional style, which stem from the political atmosphere at the time of the opera’s premiere in 1838 Paris when ill-willed critics renamed it Malvenuto Cellini. A general ignorance of this work and its music pervades the world of vocal pedagogy, having been excluded from the standard repertoire anthologies, where it can ironically be the most useful. The research presented in this project comprises ...


Laughing At Ourselves: Music And Identity In Comedic Performance, Peter Trigg 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Laughing At Ourselves: Music And Identity In Comedic Performance, Peter Trigg

Masters Theses

Standup comedy actively performs and engages with constructions of self and social identity, especially in terms of ethnic difference and the negotiation of American race relations. Musical comedy, wherein standup comedians perform song onstage, represents one facet of this expression that configures musical texts and expectations in the service of cultural observation and critique. Bo Burnham and Reggie Watts characterize two disparate approaches to the practice based on their aesthetic tastes, existential anxieties, and racial experiences. The two present their respective identities onstage in relation to a changing American political landscape of the early 21st century that has seen widespread ...


A Discussion Regarding Various Animals' Abilities To Make Music And Move Rhythmically To Songs, Emilie R. Bufford 2017 California State University, Monterey Bay

A Discussion Regarding Various Animals' Abilities To Make Music And Move Rhythmically To Songs, Emilie R. Bufford

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

This project involves exploring the presence of music and rhythmic abilities in specific animal species. The main subjects are whales, sea lions, gorillas, elephants, birds, and mice. The goal of this project was to compare their abilities to those of humans, and overall, determine whether such abilities are considered musical. Cases where animals demonstrate the ability, both learned and innate, to move to a beat are analyzed, along with animals who demonstrate musical vocal abilities naturally in the wild. The previously unknown frequencies of whales, mice, and elephants, are brought to light. These findings bring up the possibility of even ...


Uncovering The Confusing Influence Experts Have On Music Copyright Cases, Arata-Enrique Kaku 2017 Bowling Green State University

Uncovering The Confusing Influence Experts Have On Music Copyright Cases, Arata-Enrique Kaku

Honors Projects

Contemporary copyright decisions by Federal Courts perplex composers; am I the creative composer, or am I an infringer on someone else’s intellectual property? By forming a temporary monopoly to monetize new content, copyright protection incentivizes artists to be fruitful. In a creative field like music, an overly broad definition of copyrightable expression can lead to a “chilling effect” on creativity. This chilling effect is exacerbated by the great latitude given expert witnesses to claim infringement based on broad classifications of expressions. My paper addresses the question: To what extent should expert witnesses be probative when they extend ownership rights ...


The Subversion Of Wagnerian Gender Dynamics In James Joyce’S Ulysses, Sophia S. Farion 2017 College of William and Mary

The Subversion Of Wagnerian Gender Dynamics In James Joyce’S Ulysses, Sophia S. Farion

Undergraduate Honors Theses

To the uninitiated, the works of James Joyce can descend into endless and impenetrable obscurity, but one thinker provides a key to deciphering Joyce’s writing: German operatic composer Richard Wagner. Wagner dominated nineteenth-century culture and Joyce could not escape his omnipotent influence. Whereas many artists tried to adopt aspects of Wagner’s artistic philosophy as their own, Joyce’s works reveal an inherent kinship with the composer. Allusions to Wagner’s radical “music dramas” are evident across Joyce’s œuvre. Wagner’s influence is not only found in the implicit and explicit allusions in Ulysses,—as Timothy Martin and ...


Composed In The Closet: Ingolf Dahl's A Cycle Of Sonnets, Cody M. Jones 2017 College of William and Mary

Composed In The Closet: Ingolf Dahl's A Cycle Of Sonnets, Cody M. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper analyzes Ingolf Dahl’s 1968 song cycle, A Cycle of Sonnets, within the specific personal and historical context surrounding its composition. This piece—perhaps more than any of his other works—shows the strong imprint of the emotional forces caused by Dahl’s personal life—specifically, his complex conception of his identity as a gay man. Through detailed examination of the score, text, and compositional sketches for the work and of entries in the composer’s unpublished diaries, this paper establishes a connection between the work itself and Dahl’s struggles to cope with aging, relationships, and his ...


The Romanian Church Musician: Biblical Foundations For Training Musicians To Serve The Romanian Evangelical Church, Gary Mathena 2017 Liberty University

The Romanian Church Musician: Biblical Foundations For Training Musicians To Serve The Romanian Evangelical Church, Gary Mathena

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Emanuel University of Oradea, Romania, was founded in 1986 as an underground training school for pastors and missionaries during the brutal regime of communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. In December of 1989, Ceaușescu’s government was overthrown. The new democratic government not only officially recognized the school (then the Baptist Biblical Institute) as a theological seminary, but also commissioned the institution to train teachers for the newly emerging, publicly funded religious schools being established across the country. The school accepted that mandate and in 1998 changed its name to Emanuel University of Oradea. The music program began in those early days ...


A Study For Training And Building Up Worship Leaders For Spiritual Maturity And Revival In South Korea, Kyuhyuk Lee 2017 Liberty University

A Study For Training And Building Up Worship Leaders For Spiritual Maturity And Revival In South Korea, Kyuhyuk Lee

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Worship leaders have become important ministers in worship since the 1990s in South Korea. However, South Korean churches rarely train and build up worship leaders because of the lack of recognition of the importance and expertise about worship leading. They have a false belief that the only role of worship leaders is to lead worship with musical skills. The purpose of this thesis project is to help worship leaders and their congregations to worship God correctly by presenting the concept and necessity for God-centered worship and principles for spiritually mature worship leaders. This study will examine the Bible and literature ...


Worship Renewal Through Discipleship: How Discipleship And Mission Affects Our Worship, Kevin Haglund 2017 Liberty University

Worship Renewal Through Discipleship: How Discipleship And Mission Affects Our Worship, Kevin Haglund

Masters Theses

Numerous articles, blogs, and books have been written in recent years about the lessening of congregational participation in singing and many have called for a renewal of worship and changes in worship practice within the church. Yet, most of the solutions offered are aimed at bettering what happens inside the worship event—singing songs with more theologically rich lyrics, incorporating more scripture and prayer, striving for more creative ways to engage the congregation, more resources and training for worship leaders, and many other valuable ideas. As excellent as those solutions may be, they are incomplete unless we also focus on ...


Salar Music And Identity: A "Sad" Sound, Elizabeth Keating 2017 Liberty University

Salar Music And Identity: A "Sad" Sound, Elizabeth Keating

Masters Theses

The Salar are a Muslim minority group in China. They are from the northwest province of Qinghai. Xunhua, the Salar autonomous county, is located about 150 kilometers away from Qinghai’s capital, Xining. I have elected to learn about this minority group because of the need for research and general value. There is a need because little prior research has been done concerning the Salar minority within the field of ethnomusicology. This hole needs to be filled within minority China research. Beyond ethnomusicology, cultural and sociological understanding will profit, expanding the knowledge base of humankind. Also, the Salar themselves are ...


No Stone Unturned: Defining The Role Of A Worship Assistant, Brittany McGilberry 2017 Liberty University

No Stone Unturned: Defining The Role Of A Worship Assistant, Brittany Mcgilberry

Masters Theses

This paper will encompass information and the philosophy of the role of a worship assistant in ministry regarding the vision of the church, the use of appropriate equipment, and effective rehearsal strategies.


The Sounds Behind Language : Three Musical Settings Of Beckett's Not I By Heinz Holliger, Paul Rhys, And Agata Zubel., Trevor Roy DeJarnett 2017 University of Louisville

The Sounds Behind Language : Three Musical Settings Of Beckett's Not I By Heinz Holliger, Paul Rhys, And Agata Zubel., Trevor Roy Dejarnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Samuel Beckett’s literary and dramatic works have served as sources of inspiration in the last five decades for multiple composers such as Morton Feldman and György Kurtág. Beckett’s late minimalist monologue Not I (1972) is the basis for recent compositions by Heinz Holliger, Paul Rhys, and Agata Zubel. While scholars have discussed similarities between Beckett’s style and individual musical works, a comprehensive study of multiple compositions based on the same work by Samuel Beckett has not yet been completed. Each of these compositions reflects various aspects of Beckett’s late dramatic style such as his use of ...


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