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A Disappearing Boundary?: The Changing Distinction Between Combatants And Civilians From The First World War To The Present Day, Aimee Kidder 2010 Colby College

A Disappearing Boundary?: The Changing Distinction Between Combatants And Civilians From The First World War To The Present Day, Aimee Kidder

Honors Theses

The issue of terrorism has stimulated intellectual debate regarding the rights and protections that should be afforded to civilians. However, the practice of targeting noncombatants in warfare extends far beyond terrorism and has roots deep in the historical past. This study looks at violence against civilians over a series of case studies from the First and Second World Wars as well as the French-Algerian War of the 1950s and 1960s. By looking at the changing legal distinctions between combatants and noncombatants, the study first establishes a trend in international law toward increasing protection of civilians. Yet, these legal advances are ...


Dis-Manteling More, Peter Iver Kaufman 2010 University of Richmond

Dis-Manteling More, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Hilary Mantel's Wolf Hall, winner of the prestigious 2009 Booker-Man award for fiction, re-presents the 1520s and early 1530s from Thomas Cromwell's perspective. Mantel mistakenly underscores Cromwell's confessional neutrality and imagines his kindness as well as Thomas More's alleged cruelty. The book recycles old and threadbare accusations that More himself answered. "Dis-Manteling" collects evidence for the accuracy of More's answers and supplies alternative explanations for events and for More's attitudes that Mantel packs into her accusations. Wolf Hall is admirably readable, although prejudicial. Perhaps it is fair for fiction to distort so ascertainably, yet ...


Die Darstellung Der Evangelischen Kirche Als Eine Neue Familie In Erich Loests Nikolaikirche, Beth A. Roberts 2010 Illinois Wesleyan University

Die Darstellung Der Evangelischen Kirche Als Eine Neue Familie In Erich Loests Nikolaikirche, Beth A. Roberts

Honors Projects

Throughout the end of the 1980s the Lutheran Church in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) experienced a surge of attendance and social activism in an otherwise secularized society. Research shows that the church was the sole island of dissent within the communist GDR. St. Nicolas Church in the city of Leipzig became the prototype of social involvement; visionary pastors opened their doors to every citizen and provided a space for congregations to voice concerns, organize interest groups, and plan peace protests. The construction of an open environment in which citizens could speak and interact gave rise to a greater sense ...


Votes For Women: Women's Suffrage, Gendered Political Culture, And Progressive Era Masculinity In The State Of Indiana, Lindsay E. Rump 2010 Butler University

Votes For Women: Women's Suffrage, Gendered Political Culture, And Progressive Era Masculinity In The State Of Indiana, Lindsay E. Rump

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

This thesis will examine gendered political culture and masculinity in Indiana during the Progressive Era, leading up to the enfranchisement of women. Using articles from newspapers and periodicals, this work will examine how women were presented in the public sphere, how they were methodically portrayed as the lighter sex, used for advertising for clothing or appliances and never taken seriously as political figures. Then, this paper will ex plain the profile of women's suffrage in Indiana, how the women in this state began the fight for the vote, the women and the conventions that carried it onward, and finally ...


Bolivia's Coca Headache: The Agroyungas Program, Inflation, Campesinos, Coca And Capitalism In Bolivia, John D. Roberts 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bolivia's Coca Headache: The Agroyungas Program, Inflation, Campesinos, Coca And Capitalism In Bolivia, John D. Roberts

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Bolivia in the 1980s was wracked by monetary inflation approaching levels of the German Weimar Republic. Immediately following this time of great financial crisis in Bolivia, the U.N. founded a project through the U.N.D.P. to encourage peasant farmers in Bolivia to switch from growing coca (the plant used manufacture cocaine) to growing other cash crops for market. This crop substitution and development program, called the Agroyungas Project, lasted from 1985 to 1991 and is the focus of this study. While many U.N. pundits and journalists considered the program’s initial small successes promising, it has ...


12 Eylül'Ü Konu Alan Filmlerde Karşı Anlatı Olarak Ses Ve Hafıza, Pelin Basci 2010 Portland State University

12 Eylül'Ü Konu Alan Filmlerde Karşı Anlatı Olarak Ses Ve Hafıza, Pelin Basci

World Languages and Literatures Faculty Publications and Presentations

During the last three decades, the 1980 military coup has acquired increased visibility in Turkish cinema. Films that treat the 1980 coup record two aspects of it as parts of a cinematographic narrative: some films explore the socio-political reasons behind the coup by capturing the period preceding the takeover, while others explore the human impact of the coup by capturing the period following it. Films in both groups interrupt the silence maintained by the official narrative about the coup, critique the justifications for military intervention, and expose the violence that was perpetrated in the name of the state.


Bittersweet Independence: The Influence Of The United States On Cuba’S Independence, Samantha Nordstrom 2010 Western Oregon University

Bittersweet Independence: The Influence Of The United States On Cuba’S Independence, Samantha Nordstrom

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


“Say Uncle” Reagan Doctrine And Nicaragua, Jordan L. Kasler 2010 Western Oregon University

“Say Uncle” Reagan Doctrine And Nicaragua, Jordan L. Kasler

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

On Friday October 16, 1981, President Ronald Reagan wrote in his personal diary, “Central America is really the world’s next hotspot. Nicaragua is an armed camp supplied by Cuba and threatening a communist takeover of all of Central America.” For the next eight years as Commander-in-Chief, this mindset would shape his perspective on the small Third World country about the size of North Carolina. The Administration’s policies, actions, and attitudes toward Nicaragua and other perceived hostile nations became known as “Reagan Doctrine.” The defeat of the Nicaraguan Revolution became the “cornerstone of the Reagan Central American policy and ...


The Railroads Must Have Ties: A Legal History Of Forest Conservation And The Oregon & California Railroad Land Grant, 1887-1916, Sean M. Kammer 2010 University of South Dakota School of Law

The Railroads Must Have Ties: A Legal History Of Forest Conservation And The Oregon & California Railroad Land Grant, 1887-1916, Sean M. Kammer

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

Historians have! for the most part! left unchallenged a similar negative view of Edward H. Harriman, who headed both the Union Pacific and the Southern Pacific and was perhaps the most powerful of the railroad tycoons during the first decade of the twentieth century.4 Prior to Harriman's takeover of the Southern Pacific in 1901, that railroad's long-standing policy had been to subdivide and sell lands to farmers, miners, and loggers, the purpose being lito encourage long-term settlement, economic growth, and rail traffic," but Harriman questioned and ultimately rejected this policy.s In January 1903, he ordered the ...


Building Historical Imagination With Three Potato, Two Carrots, And One Onion, Pamela Riney-Kehrberg 2010 Iowa State University

Building Historical Imagination With Three Potato, Two Carrots, And One Onion, Pamela Riney-Kehrberg

History Publications

Cultivating historical imagination in undergraduate students is often a difficult task. The distance between their lives, generally lived in the last quarter century, and the ways in which people lived i the pre-World War II period can be enormous. The task becomes even more difficult when students think that certain elements of their lives in the present are much more similar to those of previous eras than they actually are. Case in point is the Great Depression. Given the current economic downturn, many students are convinced that, in some ways, they are living in a situation akin to that of ...


Democratic Triumph, Scholarly Pessimism, Bruce Gilley 2010 Portland State University

Democratic Triumph, Scholarly Pessimism, Bruce Gilley

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article discusses how the democratic form of government has gone from an oddity to the most common form of government in the world. The written works on democracy in the past twenty years have dealt primarily with the writers' growing sense of insecurity, the belief that history runs in cycles, and the belief that democracy will run its course and the world will find itself returned to an authoritarian existence. Samuel P. Huntington expressed his pessimism with democracy in his book "The Third Wave." Huntington believes that only countries with a substantial Western influence will be able to sustain ...


The Tide Is Setting Strongly Against Us, Edward L. Ayers 2010 University of Richmond

The Tide Is Setting Strongly Against Us, Edward L. Ayers

History Faculty Publications

Lincoln's bid for reelection in 1864 faced serious challenges from a popular opponent and a nation weary of war. For a good part of 1864 -- the year he faced reelection -- Abraham Lincoln had little faith that he would win or even be renominated.


Princess Mary As The De Facto Prince(Ss) Of Wales, 1525, Jeri L. McIntosh 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Princess Mary As The De Facto Prince(Ss) Of Wales, 1525, Jeri L. Mcintosh

History Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Had Your Imperial Army Not Invaded: Japan's Role In The Making Of Modern China, Joshua Hubbard 2010 Marshall University

Had Your Imperial Army Not Invaded: Japan's Role In The Making Of Modern China, Joshua Hubbard

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

By 1936, the Guomindang had seemingly managed to secure its political dominance by nearly annihilating its main adversary, the Chinese Communist Party. In 1937, the Japanese army began a full-scale invasion of China that would forever change its political landscape. During the subsequent eight-year war, the Guomindang government collapsed, plagued by economic difficulties and internal corruption. Simultaneously, the small group of communists in Yan’an grew into a virulent force of opposition, with vast amounts of territory and the support of the masses. Nearly all components of this drastic turn of events can be linked to the imperialist expansion of ...


Government And Politics Newsletter, Issue 6, Sacred Heart University 2010 Sacred Heart University

Government And Politics Newsletter, Issue 6, Sacred Heart University

Government and Politics Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Governing Gambling In The United States, Maria E. Garcia 2010 Claremont McKenna College

Governing Gambling In The United States, Maria E. Garcia

CMC Senior Theses

The role risk taking has played in American history has helped shape current legislation concerning gambling. This thesis attempts to explain the discrepancies in legislation regarding distinct forms of gambling. While casinos are heavily regulated by state and federal laws, most statutes dealing with lotteries strive to regulate the activities of other parties instead of those of the lottery institutions. Incidentally, lotteries are the only form of gambling completely managed by the government. It can be inferred that the United States government is more concerned with people exploiting gambling than with the actual practice of wagering.

In an effort to ...


Short Term Strategies For Long Term Power: The Rise And Potential Fall Of Hugo Chávez, Linden E.S. Schult 2010 Claremont McKenna College

Short Term Strategies For Long Term Power: The Rise And Potential Fall Of Hugo Chávez, Linden E.S. Schult

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores the route to power of Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez and the methods by which he has remained in power throughout his presidency. Also, it explores the potential for Chávez to lose power, given the current economic and political situation in Venezuela. The importance of the oil industry, Chávez's suppression of the opposition and control of the media, and constitutional changes and reforms are all discussed as keys to Chávez's continuance in power.


Jose P. Laurel And Jorge B. Vargas: Issues Of Collaboration And Loyalty During The Japanese Occupation Of The Philippines, Jonathan Black 2010 Claremont Mckenna College

Jose P. Laurel And Jorge B. Vargas: Issues Of Collaboration And Loyalty During The Japanese Occupation Of The Philippines, Jonathan Black

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper I looked at the actions that were taken by Jose P. Laurel and Jorge Vargas during the occupation of the Philippines country by Japanese Imperial forces during World War II. I was mostly interested in the idea of loyalties that occurred in places that were occupied throughout history and what constituted the lines that would be drawn when the leaders of those countries decided to do what was best for their people. I started by researching the many of the Occupied countries of Japan and determined one in which there was a more controversial and grayed line ...


Theodore Roosevelt On Labor Unions: A New Perspective, Louis B. Livingston 2010 Portland State University

Theodore Roosevelt On Labor Unions: A New Perspective, Louis B. Livingston

Dissertations and Theses

Historical studies of Theodore Roosevelt's views about labor and labor unions are in conflict. This was also true of contemporary disagreements about the meaning of his labor rhetoric and actions. The uncertainties revolve around whether or not he was sincere in his support of working people and labor unions, whether his words and actions were political only or were based on a philosophical foundation, and why he did not propose comprehensive labor policies.

Roosevelt historiography has addressed these questions without considering his stated admiration for Octave Thanet's writings about "labor problems." Octave Thanet was the pseudonym of Alice ...


Not Undertaking The Almost-Impossible Task: The 1961 Wire Act’S Development, Initial Applications, And Ultimate Purpose, David G. Schwartz 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Not Undertaking The Almost-Impossible Task: The 1961 Wire Act’S Development, Initial Applications, And Ultimate Purpose, David G. Schwartz

Library Faculty Publications

For a Camelot-era piece of legislation, the Wire Act has a long and unintended shadow. Used haltingly in the 1960s, when the Wire Act failed to deliver the death blow to organized crime, 1970’s Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) became a far better weapon against the mob. Yet starting in the 1990s, the Wire Act enjoyed a second life, when the Justice Department used to it prosecute operators of online betting Web sites that, headquartered in jurisdictions where such businesses were legal, took bets from American citizens. The legislative history of the Wire Act, however, suggests that it ...


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