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The Psychological Importance Of Forensic Identification To Families Of Victims Of Human Rights Violations, Emma S. Thoms 2018 Gettysburg College

The Psychological Importance Of Forensic Identification To Families Of Victims Of Human Rights Violations, Emma S. Thoms

Student Publications

No one knows how many people are missing in the world. Among cases involving kidnapping, human trafficking, and armed conflicts, even the most scrutinous efforts can never verify the sheer number of missing persons. This mystery is especially true for armed conflicts and human rights abuses as “the reluctance of most states to deal honestly and effectively with this issue” keeps the number unknown (“Missing”). Sadly, a great deal of missing persons are not only missing, but dead and unidentified, often as a result of armed conflicts like genocide, which uses mass graves. Once the mass graves are unearthed, specially ...


Repatriation Of Rwandan Returnees In Kigali: Integration Of Those Born And Raised On Exile As A Result Of The 1959 Violence Wave, Cristina Taulet Sanchez 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Repatriation Of Rwandan Returnees In Kigali: Integration Of Those Born And Raised On Exile As A Result Of The 1959 Violence Wave, Cristina Taulet Sanchez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study explores the repatriation process of millions of Rwandans that returned to Kigali after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, focusing on those that were born and raised in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, and Burundi as a result of the ethnic violence in 1959 and its aftermath. To complete this project, both theoretical and empirical research was conducted, including academic perspectives, numerical data analysis, and one-on-one interviews on the field. By examining the previous living conditions in the host countries, alongside the process of return and resettlement once in Rwanda, this study presents the physical and emotional ...


Psychological Effects Of Genocide Participation: The Perspective Of Perpetrators, Sarah Etzel 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Psychological Effects Of Genocide Participation: The Perspective Of Perpetrators, Sarah Etzel

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The 1994 Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi exposed an entire population to unimaginable acts of violence and created severe and lasting psychological effects for all who were involved. This study focuses on this impact in those who participated in the genocide, acknowledging that committing crime carries a psychological burden and in many cases traumatizes the perpetrator. Through interviews conducted with ten genocide perpetrators and four professionals who have worked closely with them, the study describes the impacts of genocide participation, analyzes various coping strategies, and explores the psychological counseling processes for perpetrators in Rwanda today. Results suggest that genocide participation ...


Holocaust Educational Practices: Reviews And Recommendations, Shainna Ali, Erik Horne 2018 University of Central Florida

Holocaust Educational Practices: Reviews And Recommendations, Shainna Ali, Erik Horne

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal (URJ)

The Holocaust, the most horrific event of the twentieth century, demonstrated the effects of state- ordained genocide. The Holocaust's historical framework emerged from a deep rooted past of racist sentiment that culminated in the organized killing of six million people. Exposing students to constructs of racism, prejudice, indifference, diversity, morality, acceptance, tolerance, and understanding through Holocaust pedagogy can perhaps prevent future genocidal events. Successful Holocaust-based curricula include four main concepts: the placement of the Holocaust as a central event in history, the discussion of values and tolerance, the accurate representation of the Holocaust, and the use of grade-level appropriate ...


The Kapo On Film: Tragic Perpetrators And Imperfect Victims, Mark A. Drumbl 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law

The Kapo On Film: Tragic Perpetrators And Imperfect Victims, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

The Nazis coerced and enlisted detainees into the administration of the labour and death camps. These detainees were called Kapos. The Kapos constitute a particularly contested, and at times tabooified, element of Holocaust remembrance. Some Kapos deployed their situational authority to ease the conditions of other prisoners, while others acted cruelly and committed abuse. This project explores treatment of the Kapo on film. This paper considers two films: Kapò (1959, directed by Pontecorvo, Italy) and Kapo (2000, directed by Setton, Israel). These two films vary in genre: Kapò (1959) is a feature fiction movie, whereas Kapo (2000) is a documentary ...


“Ewig ‘Schön’”: Politics And Poetics In The Work And Correspondence Of Sarah Kirsch And Helga Novak, Sophia J. Logan 2018 Bard College

“Ewig ‘Schön’”: Politics And Poetics In The Work And Correspondence Of Sarah Kirsch And Helga Novak, Sophia J. Logan

Senior Projects Fall 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


“Is The End Game All The Same?”: Analyzing The Importance Of German Schools And The Hitler Youth Under The Third Reich, Jillian Rubin 2018 Salem State University

“Is The End Game All The Same?”: Analyzing The Importance Of German Schools And The Hitler Youth Under The Third Reich, Jillian Rubin

Honors Theses

Was the German public education system or the Hitler Youth more influential in the indoctrination of children in Nazi Germany? The German school system promoted a rhetoric built upon a Nazi ideological framework, with the end goal of having children passively think within that framework. In contrast, the Hitler Youth emphasized physical training and militarization as a critical component of the indoctrination process. Ultimately, both proved vital in the success of Nazi Germany’s re-education program and allowed for the full integration of youth into the Nazi State.


Victims Of Nazi Terror In Vienna: Legally Mandated Assistance And Social Democratic Patronage, 1945-48, Matthew P. Berg 2018 John Carroll University

Victims Of Nazi Terror In Vienna: Legally Mandated Assistance And Social Democratic Patronage, 1945-48, Matthew P. Berg

2018 Faculty Bibliography

No abstract provided.


Review Of Stone, The Liberation Of The Camps: The End Of The Holocaust And Its Aftermath,, Carol A. Leibiger 2016 University of South Dakota

Review Of Stone, The Liberation Of The Camps: The End Of The Holocaust And Its Aftermath,, Carol A. Leibiger

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Une Poétique De La Mémoire : Lire Matière Grise, Le Film Du Réalisateur Rwandais Kivu Ruhorahoza (2011), Frieda Ekotto 2015 The University of Michigan

Une Poétique De La Mémoire : Lire Matière Grise, Le Film Du Réalisateur Rwandais Kivu Ruhorahoza (2011), Frieda Ekotto

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

The film Grey Matter [Matière grise] (2011) directed by a Rwandan filmmaker Kivu Ruhorahoza, is an attempt to offer psychoanalytic approaches to understanding a 1994 Rwandan genocide within the psychic and the social. This director is interested in representing the impossible, instead, he offers a poetic representation of trauma. It may be just like a dream in his psychic, wondering whether this event really happened and how to make sense of as time settles ? This noiseless film is the first feature length narrative film directed by a Rwandan who gives the world the visual interpretation of the impact of the ...


Vicarious Shame, Narrative, Social Reconnection And Public Recognition In Bamporiki’S Sin To Them, Shame On Me, Rangira Béa Gallimore 2015 University of Missouri, Columbia

Vicarious Shame, Narrative, Social Reconnection And Public Recognition In Bamporiki’S Sin To Them, Shame On Me, Rangira Béa Gallimore

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

Sin to Them, Shame on Me is a testimony by the Rwandan writer, filmmaker and peace advocate, Bamporiki, who suffers from vicarious shame because of the crime of genocide that Hutu perpetrators committed against Tutsis in the name of the group. His testimony redeems his sense of self by acknowledging the wrongdoing of his group, yet it also represents a step that separates him from that group. His powerful testimonial narratives allow him to associate with genocide survivors and the world, and to develop a new identity as a Rwandan. The polymorphic narrative structure of his written testimony in which ...


Le Cinéma Face À L’Oblitération Génocidaire. Silences Éloquents Et Hors-Champ Intérieur Chez Philippe Van Leeuw Et Kivu Ruhorahoza, Alexandre Dauge-Roth, Ayse Irem Ikizler 2015 Bates College

Le Cinéma Face À L’Oblitération Génocidaire. Silences Éloquents Et Hors-Champ Intérieur Chez Philippe Van Leeuw Et Kivu Ruhorahoza, Alexandre Dauge-Roth, Ayse Irem Ikizler

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

Philippe Van Leeuw and Kivu Ruhorahoza’s cinema proposes an esthetic and ethical gaze that distances itself from the historic realism that defines the majority of the films on the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. By conferring an unprecedented eloquence to different types of silence and by maintaining viewers in a concerted state of ignorance, both filmmakers question societies’ will to know within the legacy of genocide and their willingness to culturally acknowledge the traumatic resonance of its aftermath.


La Première Couche D’Encre, Abdourahman Waberi 2015 College of the Holy Cross

La Première Couche D’Encre, Abdourahman Waberi

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

The author reexamines his engagement with the Rwandan genocide.


Du Témoin Et De L’Humain Chez Gilbert Gatore : Le Passé Devant Soi, Jean-Pierre Karegeye 2015 Macalester College

Du Témoin Et De L’Humain Chez Gilbert Gatore : Le Passé Devant Soi, Jean-Pierre Karegeye

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

This article revisits Gatore’s novel, The past ahead, in analyzing the idea of witnessing. Some critics estimate that the novel does not make a clear distinction between the perpetrator and the victim. While recognizing the danger, the article extends the debate on the notion of the human beyond the categories of “perpetrator” and “victim”. Without excusing acts of the former, the author of this article affirms that the perpetrator and the victim belong to the same humanity. While they remain extreme and inexcusable, crime against humanity and genocides are not a contingent acts, which opens a meditation on the ...


La Bande Dessinée À L’Épreuve Du Génocide Au Rwanda : État Des Lieux Critique D’Un Mode D’Expression Original, Markus Arnold, Karel Plaiche 2015 Université de La Réunion

La Bande Dessinée À L’Épreuve Du Génocide Au Rwanda : État Des Lieux Critique D’Un Mode D’Expression Original, Markus Arnold, Karel Plaiche

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

20 years after the genocide of the Tutsis, one observes within the artistic production dealing with these traumatic events the presence of several comics (or bande dessinée). Yet is this specific mode of expression which often remains associated with lightness, humour and caricature capable to address in a credible fashion such delicate topics as pain, cruelty and death ? How do comics “translate” this 1994 tragedy for the purpose of critically raising awareness and providing memorial accounts while respecting the reader’s sensitivity ? Is there an “appropriate” depiction and where is the frontier between sensational, reliable and emotionally convincing portrayal ? By ...


Le Devoir De Mémoire Ou Une Identité Ravalée Dans Cicatrices D’Alain Kamal Martial, Katharine Hargrave 2015 The Pennsylvania State University

Le Devoir De Mémoire Ou Une Identité Ravalée Dans Cicatrices D’Alain Kamal Martial, Katharine Hargrave

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

This article examines the construction of identity in Alain Kamal Martial’s novel, Cicatrices. Conceived during a rape committed by a group of militiamen, the narrator struggles against a sense of obligation to avenge his mother’s assault, as well as a need to liberate himself from this event. However, under the onus of being a proxy witness, he realizes that he cannot forget his duty of memory because he embodies the inherited trauma of past generations. The crude and powerful immediacy of this text forces the reader to reflect upon his or her own role in the remembrance of ...


Stepping Beyond Nuremberg’S Halo: The Legacy Of The Supreme National Tribunal Of Poland, Mark A. Drumbl 2015 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Stepping Beyond Nuremberg’S Halo: The Legacy Of The Supreme National Tribunal Of Poland, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

The Supreme National Tribunal of Poland (Najwyzszy Trybunal Narodowy (Tribunal)) operated from 1946 to 1948. It implemented the 1943 Moscow Declaration in the case of suspected Nazi war criminals. This article unpacks two of the Tribunal’s trials, that of Rudolph Hoess (Kommandant of Auschwitz (Oswiecim) and Amon Goeth (commander of the Krakow-Plaszow labour camp). Following an introduction, the article proceeds in four sections. Section 2 sets out the Tribunal’s provenance and background, offering a flavour of the politics and pressures that contoured (and co-opted) its activities so as to recover its place within the imagined spaces of international ...


Chercheurs D’Afrique Et Archive Coloniale, Jean-Pierre Karegeye 2014 Macalester College

Chercheurs D’Afrique Et Archive Coloniale, Jean-Pierre Karegeye

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

The main goal of this article is to demonstrate that discourse on the Rwandan genocide has an origin. In other words, the hamitic myth transcends the question of race and is present in its most radical form in the events of 1994 in Rwanda. However, the myth itself is not intrinsically genocidal, but it did clear the path. The danger arose when the myth was demythified, that is to say, perceived as historic reality and scientific knowledge, and entered a new environment of genocide discourse. To proceed based on the notion of archive is to approach the genocide in relation ...


La Fiction Du Génocide Ou Le Partage Des Émotions, Josias Semujanga 2014 Université de Montréal

La Fiction Du Génocide Ou Le Partage Des Émotions, Josias Semujanga

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

The goal of this study is to show that the fiction of genocide aims to share emotions between the narrator and the reader. It is possible to consider the narrator as representing the real reader and not only as the simple recipient written into the text. This is to say that the narrator is a part of the story but is also the reader’s counterpart as the real recipient, because both-- narrator and real reader-- are integrated in the imaginary world of the story. The role of the author is to construct intermediate mechanisms between the reader and the ...


L’Usage De La Rhétorique Émotionnelle Dans Les Récits De Jean Hatzfeld, Michael Rinn 2014 Université de Bretagne Occidentale

L’Usage De La Rhétorique Émotionnelle Dans Les Récits De Jean Hatzfeld, Michael Rinn

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

In France, the books of Jean Hatzfeld -- journalist and writer -- have played a key role for the public opinion to become aware of the tragedy of the genocide of the Rwandan Tutsi in 1994. Our paper aims to show how the discourse strategy of Jean Hatzfeld aims to influence the reader by using emotions. We would like to know how this rhetoric of emotions relies on specific cultural codes which are largely western centered. Our thesis is that since Auschwitz, those codes have constructed an argumentative framework for contemporary understanding of passion and pain in discourse.


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