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Unity Through Division: A Revision Of The Haudenosaunee's Policy Of Neutrality, Haley O'Shaughnessy 2020 Trinity College, University of Toronto

Unity Through Division: A Revision Of The Haudenosaunee's Policy Of Neutrality, Haley O'Shaughnessy

Augsburg Honors Review

The Haudenosaunee people, otherwise known as the Five Nations of Iroquois, negotiated separate treaties with the English and French in 1701. Scholars asserted Haudenosaunee desires to "sit on their mats and smoke in peace," was to maintain their political sovereignty, repress internal factionalism, and "play off' the European powers for their own economic gain. Nonetheless, their implicit assumptions of the cultural and political structures of the Great League of Peace and Power and Iroquois Confederacy, particularly that all Five Nations were centralized under one "policy of neutrality," is inconsistent with the reciprocal and decentralized posture of the Haudenosaunee. By understanding ...


Forging Insights: Indian Agency Blacksmiths Of The American Frontier, Adam G. Novey 2020 Liberty University Alumni

Forging Insights: Indian Agency Blacksmiths Of The American Frontier, Adam G. Novey

Bound Away: The Liberty Journal of History

Following the War of 1812, the United States government sought to more directly deal with the Native tribes in the American interior. The establishment of Indian agency blacksmith shops was one significant component of this endeavor. While it remains a virtually untouched topic in scholarship, the analysis of agency blacksmith services may reveal significant historical insights within topics as diverse as ethnic perception, material culture, frontier government practices, and language dynamics during a time of great upheaval. This case study of the blacksmith shop at the Fort Winnebago sub-agency in pre-state Wisconsin seeks to demonstrate the manner in which these ...


2020 Mlk Keynote Address: Michelle Alexander Presentation, Center for Social Equity & Inclusion, Michelle Alexander, Rosanne Somerson, Matthew Shenoda 2020 Rhode Island School of Design

2020 Mlk Keynote Address: Michelle Alexander Presentation, Center For Social Equity & Inclusion, Michelle Alexander, Rosanne Somerson, Matthew Shenoda

Martin Luther King, Jr. Series

2020 MLK Series Keynote Michelle Alexander brings audiences profoundly necessary and meaningful insights on the practice of mass incarceration that plagues the US justice system, as well as eye-opening conversation on how we can end racial caste in America. Lecture Wednesday, January 22, 2020 at 5:30pm, RISD Auditorium, 17 Canal Walk, Providence, RI.

In her acclaimed bestseller The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, Alexander peels back the curtain on systemic racism in the US prison system in a work that the New York Review of Books describes as "striking in the intelligence of her ...


Trickle Down Nationalism: Interactions Between Liberal Nationalism And Colonialism In The Raj And Nigeria, Aaryaman Sheoran 2020 Claremont Colleges

Trickle Down Nationalism: Interactions Between Liberal Nationalism And Colonialism In The Raj And Nigeria, Aaryaman Sheoran

CMC Senior Theses

The combination of nationalism and colonialism has remained understudied in academia, despite the important interaction between the two phenomena. European ideas bled over into their colonial empires and began to fill the power vacuum created by colonial enterprises. This study analyzes the impact of British colonialism on the development of national identity in British India and Nigeria.

British influences included large scale economic disruption, cultural reform through ‘westernizing’ the population and abolishing local customs, and creating a new set of institutions to replace traditional power centers. Inevitably, these factors created a nationalist surge across both the Raj and Nigeria, as ...


Thucydides In Pyongyang: Fear, Honor And Interests In The 1968 Pueblo Incident, Benjamin Young 2020 Dakota State University

Thucydides In Pyongyang: Fear, Honor And Interests In The 1968 Pueblo Incident, Benjamin Young

Faculty Research & Publications

Purpose: On January 23, 1968, North Korean naval forces captured a U.S spy ship, the USS Pueblo, off the coast of Wonsan. This incident nearly led to a second Korean War and heightened hostilities between the U.S and North Korean governments. This article demystifies the strategic thinking of Kim Il Sung’s regime and clarifies the reasoning behind Pyongyang’s risky undertaking in capturing the Pueblo and its crewmen as a rational and pragmatic action.

Design, Methodology, Approach: While the Pueblo crisis has been examined by a number of historians, this article which is based on former Eastern ...


Generative Leadership And The Life Of Aurelia Erskine Brazeal, A Trailblazing African American Female Foreign Service Officer, Atim Eneida George 2020 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Generative Leadership And The Life Of Aurelia Erskine Brazeal, A Trailblazing African American Female Foreign Service Officer, Atim Eneida George

Dissertations & Theses

There is a gap in the literature on generativity and the leadership philosophy and praxis of African American Female Foreign Service Officers (AAFFSOs). I addressed this deficit, in part, by engaging an individual of exceptional merit and distinction—Aurelia Erskine Brazeal—as an exemplar of AAFFSOs. Using qualitative research methods of portraiture and oral history, supplemented by collage, mind mapping and word clouds, this study examined Brazeal’s formative years in the segregated South and the extraordinary steps her parents took to protect her from the toxic effects of racism and legal segregation. In addition, I explored the development of ...


From Enemy Asset To National Showcase: France’S Seizure And Circulation Of The Matsukata Collection (1944-1958), Léa Saint-Raymond, Maxime Georges Métraux 2019 École normale supérieure

From Enemy Asset To National Showcase: France’S Seizure And Circulation Of The Matsukata Collection (1944-1958), Léa Saint-Raymond, Maxime Georges Métraux

Artl@s Bulletin

Sequestered by the French State as an "enemy asset" in 1944, Kojiro Matsukata’s collection was used as a national showcase through exhibitions until 1958. Few catalogues were transparent as to the works’ provenance from the collection. When we map and visualize this historical information, a significant contrast appears between the “real” circulation of artworks, as recorded in governmental archives, and the "official" circulation listed in catalogues. This discrepancy points to a propaganda effort in such a way as to bolster an artistic narrative that was key to French national pride, and studying it can further explain why the French ...


Human Rights? What A Good Idea! From Universal Jurisdiction To Crime Prevention, Daniel Feierstein 2019 Universidad Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires / CONICET / Universidad de Buenos Aires

Human Rights? What A Good Idea! From Universal Jurisdiction To Crime Prevention, Daniel Feierstein

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Over the last decades, Genocide Studies has entered in a “comfort zone.” With fellowships and support from governments or NGOs, we have developed a very comfortable environment in which the knowledge we produce about genocide prevention is neither critical nor useful. We have become trapped by assumptions we have never checked against reality and many of us have chosen to work inside the circle of those assumptions: genocide and mass violence are horrible acts committed by horrible people; we cannot stand by and do nothing; we have the responsibility to protect civilian populations and that responsibility takes the form, as ...


Stalin’S Foreign Policy “Shift”: Cautious Expansionism, Ussr-Dprk Relations 1945 – 1950 And The Origins Of The Korean War, Jacob Shuster 2019 University of Windsor

Stalin’S Foreign Policy “Shift”: Cautious Expansionism, Ussr-Dprk Relations 1945 – 1950 And The Origins Of The Korean War, Jacob Shuster

Major Papers

Despite initially denying Kim IL Sung’s requests for a military reunification in 1949, Josef Stalin decided to support an invasion of South Korea in 1950. This paper explores the origins of the Korean War and the roles of both the Soviet Civil Administration and Kim IL Sung in convincing Stalin that the invasion was necessary, and that it would be neither prolonged, nor involve American interference. Throughout the initial occupation of North Korea, Stalin preferred to maintain the status quo on the peninsula, as he was open to, but deeply suspicious of plans for reunification and restrained Kim’s ...


Understanding The Cultural And Nationalistic Impacts Of The Moguchaya Kuchka, Austin M. Doub 2019 Cedarville University

Understanding The Cultural And Nationalistic Impacts Of The Moguchaya Kuchka, Austin M. Doub

Musical Offerings

This paper explores Russian culture beginning in the mid nineteenth-century as the leading group of composers and musicians known as the moguchaya kuchka, or The Mighty Five, sought to influence Russian culture and develop a "pure" school of Russian music amid rampant westernization. Comprised of César Cui, Alexander Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, this group of inspired musicians opposed westernization and supported Official Nationalism by the incorporation of folklore, local village traditions, and promotion of their Tsar as a supreme political leader. In particular, the works of Balakirev, Cui, and Mussorgsky established cultural pride and contributed to ...


Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman 2019 Purdue University

Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by ...


Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh 2019 Salve Regina University

Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh

Newport History

Fifty years before the publishing of this article, the landing of the French army under General Rochambeau on American soil, as well as the end of the Revolutionary War were celebrated as part of our nation's Sesquicentennial. In 1930 Newport recalled the French landing with local festivities including a parade and speeches with fireworks on Washington Square in the evening of the 11th of July. In this article, Wadleigh goes in depth about the history and proceedings of this event.


The Story Of The Analysis Of Green End Fort, K. Walsh 2019 Salve Regina University

The Story Of The Analysis Of Green End Fort, K. Walsh

Newport History

During the American Revolution, three groups of people built forts on Aquidneck Island: the colonials, the English and their Hessian allies, and the French under Rochambeau with the aid of the colonial militia. In the winter of 1976, a study was published in the Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society which went into a detailed analysis of map locations of the forts, based on recently available maps drawn by British and French forces that occupied the island. The result of this analysis indicated that the redoubt located on Vernon Avenue in Middletown was not an English fort, but one built ...


Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver 2019 Purdue University

Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

This essay explores the role of Oscar Ewing, an Indiana native and a graduate of Indiana University (IU), in the story of the U.S. relationship with Israel, forming even prior to Israeli statehood in 1948. The essay will show that Oscar Ewing strategically utilized his political influence and role as U.S. federal security administrator—not diplomat or member of the State Department—to impact U.S. policy toward Israel. Although Ewing is a relatively unknown name in the history of the Truman administration and Israel, his influence and contribution to the early development of the well-known special relationship ...


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman 2019 Purdue University

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.


"Saper La Mente Della Soa Beatitudine": Pope Paul Ii And The Ambassadorial Community In Rome (1464-71), Paul M. Dover 2019 Kennesaw State University

"Saper La Mente Della Soa Beatitudine": Pope Paul Ii And The Ambassadorial Community In Rome (1464-71), Paul M. Dover

Paul Dover

This article examines the practice of the ambassadors sent by the Italian states to the court of Pope Paul II (1464-1471), focusing in particular on how they have embraced their role as an informant. Since Paul was a pope unstable, often impenetrable and inaccessible, the ambassadors were often obliged to obtain information about the Pope and his intentions indirectly. Relying heavily on the Roman diplomatic correspondence during the pontificate of Paul, this article shows how ambassadors have built networks of contacts within the papal court to ensure a continuous supply of useful information and in time. These networks thus comprised ...


Royal Diplomacy In Renaissance Italy: Ferrante D’Aragona (1458–1494) And His Ambassadors, Paul M. Dover 2019 Kennesaw State University

Royal Diplomacy In Renaissance Italy: Ferrante D’Aragona (1458–1494) And His Ambassadors, Paul M. Dover

Paul Dover

This article examines the diplomatic challenges faced by the king of Naples, Ferrante d'Aragona (1458-1494) and the activity of his ambassadors in meeting those challenges. It identifies Rome, Florence and Milan as the three most important nodes of Ferrante's diplomacy and looks in detail at the activity of the ambassadors who served in these postings. In the area of diplomatic praxis, Ferrante enthusiastically embraced changes pioneered by Francesco Sforza, the Duke of Milan (1450-1466), including the use of permanent resident ambassadors and diplomatic chanceries. This was very much in keeping with Ferrante's pragmatic approach to statecraft and ...


Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó 2019 Chapman University

Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó

Education Faculty Articles and Research

The im(migration) and refugee crisis that are being exacerbated under the Trump administration, is a manifestation of empire-building and the long history of colonization of the Global South. A Marxist-humanist perspective recognizes these as consistent aspects of a clearly racist global capitalism that functions in the interest of multibillion dollar U.S.–based corporations and increasingly transnational corporations. Trade agreements, international economic policy, political intervention, invasion or the threat of these, often secure corporate interests in specific countries and regions. The authors use critical discourse analysis to examine the discourses around Mexican, Central American, and Syrian im(migrants) and ...


Putin El Caudillo, Kyran Schnur 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Putin El Caudillo, Kyran Schnur

University of Massachusetts Undergraduate History Journal

This paper examines the historical development of the relationship between the Putin regime in Russia and the Chávez and Maduro regimes in Venezuela. Key differences and similarities in their foreign and domestic policies are explored, as well as how they interact with each other on the world stage. It makes the case that chavismo in Venezuela has lead to increasingly autocratic policies as oil prices have declined and leadership has changed hands, changing the character of Venezuela and Russia’s relationship into one that closely resembles the patron-client relationships of Latin American caudillismo.


Charlie Wilson's First War: Challenging Carter's Human Rights Policy Through His Support For Anastasio Somoza Debayle, 1977-79., Sherman J. Sadler 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Charlie Wilson's First War: Challenging Carter's Human Rights Policy Through His Support For Anastasio Somoza Debayle, 1977-79., Sherman J. Sadler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the support of Congressman Charles Wilson, D-TX, for the Nicaraguan government of Anastasio Somoza Debayle from March 1977 to July 1979. A narrative of Wilson's actions and motivations it relies heavily on his congressional papers for primary sources. This work argues that Wilson was motivated by his personal anti-Communist beliefs to challenge the perceived biased application of the Carter Administration's human rights policy against the Somoza regime. He saw the administration's abandonment of Nicaragua, a traditional Cold War ally after four decades of loyal support, as directly contributing to ...


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