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'Where Many Paths And Errands Meet': Travel Writing In The Lord Of The Rings, Will Glover 2020 Boston University

'Where Many Paths And Errands Meet': Travel Writing In The Lord Of The Rings, Will Glover

Journal of Tolkien Research

In this paper I examine The Lord of the Rings through the lens of genre criticism. I take issue with the commonplace characterisation of the work as an ‘epic’ or a ‘romance’, a tendency that has restricted interpretations of the work and tied criticism of it too exclusively to that of medieval literature. I argue that the work should be viewed as a modern novel: an open-ended and capacious text comprised of numerous generic traditions, including the previously overlooked genre of travel literature. After establishing a working definition of travel writing, I analyse The Lord of the Rings's paratextual ...


Bloodied Hearts And Bawdy Planets: Greco-Roman Astrology And The Regenerative Force Of The Feminine In Shakespeare’S The Winter’S Tale, Christina E. Farella 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bloodied Hearts And Bawdy Planets: Greco-Roman Astrology And The Regenerative Force Of The Feminine In Shakespeare’S The Winter’S Tale, Christina E. Farella

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis offers a new reading of William Shakespeare’s late play The Winter’s Tale (1623), positing that in order to understand this complex and eccentric work, we must read it with a complex and eccentric eye. In The Winter’s Tale, planets strike without warning, pulling at hearts, wombs, and blood, impacting the health and emotional experience of characters in the play. This work is renowned for its inconsistent formal structure; the first half is a tragedy set in winter, but abruptly shifts to a comedy set in spring/summer in its latter half. What’s more, is ...


"The Sweet And The Bitter": Death And Dying In J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Of The Rings (2018) By Amy Amendt-Raduege; And Fantasies Of Time And Death: Dunsany, Eddison, Tolkien (2020) By Anna Vaninskaya, Kris Swank 2020 University of Glasgow

"The Sweet And The Bitter": Death And Dying In J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Of The Rings (2018) By Amy Amendt-Raduege; And Fantasies Of Time And Death: Dunsany, Eddison, Tolkien (2020) By Anna Vaninskaya, Kris Swank

Journal of Tolkien Research

Book reviews by Kris Swank of "The Sweet and the Bitter": Death and Dying in J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (2018) by Amy Amendt-Raduege; and Fantasies of Time and Death: Dunsany, Eddison, Tolkien (2020) by Anna Vaninskaya


Bombadil And Bible Stories: A Biblical Function For Tom Bombadil Within Frodo’S Quest, Clive Shergold 2020 Independent scholar

Bombadil And Bible Stories: A Biblical Function For Tom Bombadil Within Frodo’S Quest, Clive Shergold

Journal of Tolkien Research

This essay probes the purpose of the encounter between Tom Bombadil and Frodo and his friends, within the overall narrative of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings. It asks: Why do the hobbits encounter Tom at this point in their journey? Why does Tom rescue, care for, equip and send them on? Why does Tom not accompany them further, and why does he never meet them again? Then it proposes an explanation based on comparisons with Bible stories that include theophanies and angelic appearances, and shown to provide answers to the questions, and suggestions for Tom ...


Matrons, Mothers, And Monsters: The Heroine In Beowulf, Grendel, And The Mere Wife, Grace Lucier 2020 College of the Holy Cross

Matrons, Mothers, And Monsters: The Heroine In Beowulf, Grendel, And The Mere Wife, Grace Lucier

College Honors Program

This thesis examines the relationship between gender and heroism in the Beowulf tale and two of its modern retellings. It includes an exploration of the medieval gender roles of the original epic using Seamus Heaney and E. Talbot Donaldson’s translations. This thesis also addresses the ways in which some characters disturb gender binaries and social roles — especially in the case of Grendel’s mother. The second and third chapters focus on two retellings of the Beowulf text respectively: John Gardner’s Grendel , told from the perspective of the monster Grendel; and Maria Dahvana Headley’s The Mere Wife , which ...


A World Ruled By Unknowns: The Psychological Effects Of The Supernatural And Natural Worlds In Emily Brontë'S Wuthering Heights, Jordan Cymrot 2020 City University of New York (CUNY)

A World Ruled By Unknowns: The Psychological Effects Of The Supernatural And Natural Worlds In Emily Brontë'S Wuthering Heights, Jordan Cymrot

Student Theses

Emily Brontë (1818-1848) wrote Wuthering Heights in 1847 at a point of collision between Romantic thought and Victorian ideals. Her novel exemplifies a developed and deliberate effort to represent a world ruled by forces out of one’s control, the most evident example of this being the supernatural force that overtakes the novel. In her precise focus on the language and natural landscape that bind this novel together, her characters emerge as representative of the psychological complexity produced by the coexistence of the mundane and the extraordinary. My thesis focuses on the effects of the natural landscape and the forces ...


Human Monsters/Monstrous Humans: Victorian Gothic Constructions Of Unnamed Monsters In Wuthering Heights And The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, Madeline Bonin 2020 Skidmore College

Human Monsters/Monstrous Humans: Victorian Gothic Constructions Of Unnamed Monsters In Wuthering Heights And The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, Madeline Bonin

Honors Theses

This capstone centers around the production of monsters in the genre of the Victorian Gothic. I specifically examine Heathcliff from Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights, and Mr. Hyde from Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. By exploring the structure of these Gothic works, I argue that monsters, specifically the monsters that fall under Maria Beville’s definition of the unnamed monster, are beings that embody and challenge the categories of person, animal, and thing. I argue that these characters’ Otherness is the catalyst for this inability to be categorized by investigating the ways ...


Selling Out: The Market As Autonomy In Bronte's Jane Eyre, Zuzu Tadeushuk 2020 Wesleyan University

Selling Out: The Market As Autonomy In Bronte's Jane Eyre, Zuzu Tadeushuk

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

This paper draws on the anthropological literature on gift economies to reconsider the way Charlotte Bronte imagines the possibilities for women's commercial mobility in Victorian England. Specifically, it examines the overlap of gift and commercial economies in "Jane Eyre," investigating Jane's reliance on commerce as the source of her independence. It is the commercial marketplace that first takes Jane from Lowood and places her at Thornfield as a governess, and which later enables her to live autonomously as a school mistress in Morton. Reviewing pivotal commercial scenes in the text--such as the bridal shopping spree that makes Jane ...


The Other Eve: How Reading Lilith Reveals The Maternal Gothic, Emma Berkowitz 2020 Skidmore College

The Other Eve: How Reading Lilith Reveals The Maternal Gothic, Emma Berkowitz

Honors Theses

“The Other Eve” uses the figure of Lilith to inform a new way of analyzing and reading Gothic novels. After a detailed survey of the mythology of Lilith, I show how she appears in the novels Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte and Dracula by Bram Stoker. Discovering Lilith in these novels uncovers a mode of the Gothic that I call Maternal Gothic which uses threats to maternity and anti-maternal figures to excite and scare the reader.


European Imperialist Violence And Feminine Influence In Joseph Conrad's Heart Of Darkness, Katlyn S. Davenport 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

European Imperialist Violence And Feminine Influence In Joseph Conrad's Heart Of Darkness, Katlyn S. Davenport

English Department Theses

This thesis explores themes of influence and resistance to imperialism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. To contextualize the feminine control and resistance of imperialism and colonialism, the thesis first examines Marlow’s and Kurt’s roles as agents and representatives of the Company, and thereby reveals their complicity in the brutalities carried out against the native people of the Congo. Additionally, it compares the vivid descriptions of violence inherent in imperialist domination with the vaguer characterization of violence among the tribespeople. Finally, by examining relationships between male and female characters as well as the ideals of the Anglo ...


The Poetry Of History: Irish National Imagination Through Mythology And Materiality, Ryan Fay 2020 College of the Holy Cross

The Poetry Of History: Irish National Imagination Through Mythology And Materiality, Ryan Fay

English Honors Theses

The thesis culminates in the twentieth century and yet it begins with the Ulster Cycle, a period of Irish mythological history that occurred around the first century common era. Indeed, since the time frame was before the arrival of the Gaels, Normans, or Christianity, the extent of this mythology’s relevance today is whatever extent it is conceptualized as “Irish.” As such, the first chapter locks onto an aspect that could feasibly transcend time and resonate with modern Irish society: gender. Of course, the epistemological dynamics of gender[1] in the first-century common era are vastly different than the twentieth ...


Playing To Win: The Marriage Market In Jane Austen’S Northanger Abbey, Sense And Sensibility And Emma, Caroline Elizabeth Nall 2020 University of Mississippi

Playing To Win: The Marriage Market In Jane Austen’S Northanger Abbey, Sense And Sensibility And Emma, Caroline Elizabeth Nall

Honors Theses

This thesis aims to analyze the implications of the marriage market in Jane Austen’s novels Northanger Abbey, Sense and Sensibility and Emma. In these books, the main focus will be on Isabella Thorpe, who is actively participating in the “game” of the marriage market, Charlotte Palmer, who has won the “game” of marriage, and Miss Bates, who has lost the “game” of marriage. The historical context of these situations, taking place in eighteenth and nineteenth century England, has been taken into account. Austen has created characters to demonstrate the many aspects of a female’s life and how it ...


Origin Of Doubts: The Victorian Quest For Proof And Radical Manifestations Of Spirit, Holly O'Byrne 2020 Skidmore College

Origin Of Doubts: The Victorian Quest For Proof And Radical Manifestations Of Spirit, Holly O'Byrne

Honors Theses

Victorians critics have deemed the nineteenth century in England “a crisis of faith.” In the face of dissatisfaction with the Church of England, people rejected organized religion and turned to alternative spirituality like Natural Supernaturalism and Corporeal Spiritualism. The motivation for this paper began with the questions: why were people leaving the church and what were they finding in these other spiritual practices? I argue that the question of belief, for Victorians, became a question of proof. Darwin’s 1859 publication On the Origin of Species presented a theory about the world through a scientific argument containing a hypothesis, evidence ...


Sexual And Erotic Transgression Through Aesthetic History: A Study Of Algernon Charles Swinburne, Ronny F. Ford 2020 Michigan State University

Sexual And Erotic Transgression Through Aesthetic History: A Study Of Algernon Charles Swinburne, Ronny F. Ford

Beyond the Margins: A Journal of Graduate Literary Scholarship

This article examines the relationship between Algernon Charles Swinburne’s poetic writing and history, especially in regards to how he explores sexual transgressions. The article begins with how aestheticism works in tangent with history to further these transgressions within a historical context and especially within the realm of Victorian Christianity. Next, Swinburne’s medieval aesthetics in “The Leper” will be analyzed in regards specifically necrophilia and the taking care of a leper, and how the writing of this poem was both a condemnation of Christianity and an accidental upholding of it. The violent homoeroticism and monstrous femininity of “Anactoria” are ...


Dirty London: How Victorian Filth Formed The Urban Detective, Hannah Curtis 2020 Skidmore College

Dirty London: How Victorian Filth Formed The Urban Detective, Hannah Curtis

Honors Theses

This capstone focuses on the prevalence of physical dirt and moral corruption in Victorian London. By examining the methods of the Victorian detective, this work illuminates the connection between moral and physical filth. Works examined Include A Study in Scarlet by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson.


A Ray Of Moonlight Falls: Casting Light On Oscar Wilde's Dissident Decadence, Hannah Rose Sacks 2020 Skidmore College

A Ray Of Moonlight Falls: Casting Light On Oscar Wilde's Dissident Decadence, Hannah Rose Sacks

Honors Theses

This thesis follows the work of Oscar Wilde, tracking his poetic prose in conjunction with his dissidence against societal expectations in the late Victorian era. Works analyzed include The Picture of Dorian Gray, Salome, The Happy Prince, De Profundis, and others.


"The Flat Earth Made Round And Tolkien’S Failure To Finish The Silmarillion", John D. Rateliff 2020 independent scholar

"The Flat Earth Made Round And Tolkien’S Failure To Finish The Silmarillion", John D. Rateliff

Journal of Tolkien Research

Towards the end of his career, J. R. R. Tolkien faced many obstacles both internal and external that stood in the way of his finishing and publishing The Silmarillion. This paper explores the various elements that contributed to his dilemma and concludes that the key factors were twofold.

First came the traumatic breakdown of his efforts to publish the book through Collins, leading to a catastrophic interruption of his work on the book.

In addition, by this time Tolkien had concluded that many of the most iconic elements in his mythology could no longer command evoke secondary belief in modern-day ...


The Rise Of Totalitarianism, Colonial Mimicry, And Gender And Sexuality In The Twentieth Century English Literature, Shahin Hossain 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Rise Of Totalitarianism, Colonial Mimicry, And Gender And Sexuality In The Twentieth Century English Literature, Shahin Hossain

Master of Arts in English Plan II Graduate Projects

In this portfolio, Shahin Hossain provides an alternative reading of Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room, and Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable.


Toxic Masculinity In Henry V, Abigail King 2020 St. John Fisher College

Toxic Masculinity In Henry V, Abigail King

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Toxic masculinity motivates the characters and plot of Henry V by William Shakespeare. The play revolves around King Henry V and how he is a model leader of England during the Hundred Years War. Henry uses what a “true” man should be to inspire his soldiers when morale is low. Further, manlihood is seen in the characters or lack thereof. Characters that fail to follow the high expectations of masculinity are killed. Audience members recognize the importance of masculinity throughout the play, although the outcomes of those stereotypes are dangerous seen in the superficial friendships and suppression of authentic self.


How Not To Read Literature: The Nazis’ Appropriation Of The Merchant Of Venice, William W. White 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

How Not To Read Literature: The Nazis’ Appropriation Of The Merchant Of Venice, William W. White

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

In his essay “Reading Law, Reading Literature: Law as Language,” legal scholar James Boyd White extols the interpretive flexibility of literary and legal texts and warns against viewing literature as having “objective and determinate meanings.” White’s warning raises the question of whether a literary work's meaning can be used to promote a morally corrupt agenda. This paper seeks to explore the danger of reducing a work of literature's meaning to a determinate claim by focusing on how Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice was utilized by the Nazis as anti-Semitic political propaganda. Shakespeare’s play experienced a ...


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