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A Comparative Study Between Athletic And Non-Athletic Consumers:Consumer Decision-Making Styles, Shopping Channel Choices, And Purchase Intentions, Thomas F. Turner, Michelle Childs, Kittichai Watchravesringkan 2013 University of North Carolina

A Comparative Study Between Athletic And Non-Athletic Consumers:Consumer Decision-Making Styles, Shopping Channel Choices, And Purchase Intentions, Thomas F. Turner, Michelle Childs, Kittichai Watchravesringkan

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

In 2012, athletic apparel drove sales of more than US $66 billion with a five-year growth rate of over 32% from 2007 to 2012 (Euromonitor, 2013). While there is limited research in this area, Smith (2008) contends that athleticism has become commercialized, influencing consumption of fitness related goods. However, there is not a clear understanding of how consumption differs between athletic and non-athletic consumers. To this end, the purpose of this study is to compare athletic and non-athletic consumers in terms of consumer decision-making styles, shopping channel choices, and purchase intentions of athletic apparel. Furthermore, this study also investigates the ...


A Typology Of Consumers’ Familiarity And Experience Of Organic Cotton Apparel, Tae-Im Han, Leslie Stoel 2013 The Ohio State University

A Typology Of Consumers’ Familiarity And Experience Of Organic Cotton Apparel, Tae-Im Han, Leslie Stoel

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

In recent years, people have been increasingly motivated by ethical consumption and accordingly, products featuring environmental claims have obtained unprecedented popularity in various retail sectors. The apparel industry is no exception, offering a variety of environmentally friendly products to satisfy the preferences of socially responsible consumers. Among these, one of the most representative and popular products could be apparel made with organic cotton which is grown under sustainable farming practices (Lin, 2010). However, it is reported that familiarity with organic cotton is considerably low among consumers (Ha- Brookshire & Norum, 2012). This could be problematic, especially to organic cotton product retailers ...


College Students’ Purchase Intention For Luxury Brand Fashion Counterfeit Goods: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Xiao Huang, Hyejeong Kim 2013 Auburn University

College Students’ Purchase Intention For Luxury Brand Fashion Counterfeit Goods: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Xiao Huang, Hyejeong Kim

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (2012) reported that fashion counterfeiting keeps growing. Among the 25,000 counterfeits seized in 2011, fashion counterfeits were the largest category, representing 32%. China is one of the largest suppliers of counterfeits (Facts and Details, 2012). However, little is known about Chinese consumers’ fashion counterfeit purchase behaviors and no cross-cultural studies have examined the differences between U.S. and Chinese consumers in terms of factors influencing their behavioral intention related to fashion counterfeit consumption.


College Students’ Responses To Prosocial Marketing Claims On Apparel Hang Tags, Karen H. Hyllegard, Jennifer Paff Ogle, Ruoh-Nan Yan 2013 Colorado State University

College Students’ Responses To Prosocial Marketing Claims On Apparel Hang Tags, Karen H. Hyllegard, Jennifer Paff Ogle, Ruoh-Nan Yan

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

In recent years, it has become increasingly common for apparel companies to include prosocial marketing claims on product hang tags. Such claims have addressed environmentallysound production practices, fair labor/fair trade initiatives, and/or monetary contributions to charitable causes. However, research provides only limited understanding of the benefits to consumers and/or apparel companies derived from including prosocial marketing claims on apparel hang tags. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore consumers’ responses to prosocial marketing claims placed on apparel hang tags.


Modern Consumer Socialization: The Influence Of Peers, Family, And Online Social Networking Usage, Jennifer Johnson, Young Ha 2013 Univeristy of Nebraska–Lincoln

Modern Consumer Socialization: The Influence Of Peers, Family, And Online Social Networking Usage, Jennifer Johnson, Young Ha

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Online social networking (SNS) usage has been a revolutionary topic of interest for researchers and consumers since online social networking websites’ popularity spiked. Online social networking utilized by an individual engages family members, friends, and retailers. Since SNS have integrated into many individuals’ daily lives, consumer socialization patterns previously observed have undoubtedly changed. Although the influence of SNS usage on attitudes and purchase intentions toward product reviews have rarely been researched, preceding studies have found socialization agents such as peers, family, and media to be influential on the socialization of consumers (Nelson & McLeod, 2005).


Public Service Motivation (Psm) And Attitudes Toward Purchasing Fashion Counterfeits, Kwangho Jung, Jane Workman, Seung-Hee Lee 2013 Seoul National University

Public Service Motivation (Psm) And Attitudes Toward Purchasing Fashion Counterfeits, Kwangho Jung, Jane Workman, Seung-Hee Lee

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Counterfeits are "reproductions that appear identical to legitimate products in appearance, including packaging, trademarks, and labeling" (Ang et al, 2001). In 2007, trade in counterfeits was estimated to be more than US $600 billion a year – 5 to 7% of world trade (Pollinger, 2008). The cost of counterfeiting to South Korea in the last five years is estimated at $60 billion (The Korea Times, 2010). Fashion products (clothing, shoes, watches, leather goods, and jewelry) are the most popular counterfeit products.


Mother/Daughter Relationships And Fashion Influences, Jessica L. Kestler, V. Ann Paulins 2013 Ohio University

Mother/Daughter Relationships And Fashion Influences, Jessica L. Kestler, V. Ann Paulins

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Consumers are influenced in their fashion styles in a variety of ways (Bertrandias & Goldsmith, 2006). They often talk to each other, and seek and give opinions. Opinion leadership and opinion seeking are recognized as among the most important word-of-mouth influences on product sales and brand choice (Behling, 1992; Bertrandias & Goldsmith, 2006). Conversely, opinion seekers typically have less interest in and knowledge of products (such as fashion) than opinion leaders and; therefore as consumers, they seek information and advice from opinion leaders (Goldsmith & Clark, 2008).


The Effect Of Retailer Perceived Isomorphism And Performative Action On Legitimacy, Word-Of-Mouth And Purchase Intention, Jiyoung Kim, Sejin Ha 2013 University of North Texas

The Effect Of Retailer Perceived Isomorphism And Performative Action On Legitimacy, Word-Of-Mouth And Purchase Intention, Jiyoung Kim, Sejin Ha

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Gaining legitimacy is an integral part of every business that seeks to provide justification for its existence within the society (Cheit, 1964). Organizational legitimacy, as a status granted by a society system (Ashforth & Gibbs, 1990), is defined as the “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within a society system” (Suchman, 1995, p. 574).


Predictors Of Purchase Intention Toward Green Apparel Products: A Cross-Cultural Investigation In The U.S. And China, Seung Bong Ko, Byoungho Jin 2013 Texas A&M University

Predictors Of Purchase Intention Toward Green Apparel Products: A Cross-Cultural Investigation In The U.S. And China, Seung Bong Ko, Byoungho Jin

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Despite the increase in interest in green apparel products (Hamilton & Zilberman, 2006), limited studies regarding consumers’ green behavior in apparel products have been conducted (Lee, 2011; Mahenc, 2008) and some focused only on green issues in the production stage without looking at consumer buying patterns. Another serious gap in green apparel consumption is limited understanding of green apparel consumption behaviors in other countries.


Developing A Framework To Understand The Roles Of Fashion Leaders And Followers In A Process Of Fashion Viral Marketing Campaigns, Caroline Kobia, Chuanlan Liu 2013 Mississippi State University

Developing A Framework To Understand The Roles Of Fashion Leaders And Followers In A Process Of Fashion Viral Marketing Campaigns, Caroline Kobia, Chuanlan Liu

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

The development of technology in the recent years has impacted many companies’ operations and profitability. Advancing technology comes with new rules for firms to carry out business with their customers and partners. The enormous growth of social media (Twitter©, Facebook©, LinkedIn©, MySpace©, Google©+, Pinterest©, blogs, and virtual worlds) and plethora participation of consumers in these platforms make it imperative for companies to reexamine their business strategies.


Men (And Women) Shopping On The Darkside: Consumer Misbehavior On Black Friday, Sharron J. Lennon, Jaeha Lee, Minjeong Kim, Kim K. P. Johnson 2013 Indiana University

Men (And Women) Shopping On The Darkside: Consumer Misbehavior On Black Friday, Sharron J. Lennon, Jaeha Lee, Minjeong Kim, Kim K. P. Johnson

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Black Friday (BF) has been studied as a consumption event (Thomas & Peters, 2011) and as a site for consumer misbehavior (Lennon, Johnson, & Lee, 2011). BF is a unique shopping event (Thomas & Peters, 2011); most major retailers participate with extended hours and doorbuster promotions. Since the goal of promotions is to make people want things (Anderson & Bushman, 2002), BF promotions may incentivize consumer misbehavior on BF.


Generation Y’S Perception Of Price And Quality Related To Apparel Products, Rebecca Letchworth, Mallori Guthrie 2013 East Carolina Univeristy

Generation Y’S Perception Of Price And Quality Related To Apparel Products, Rebecca Letchworth, Mallori Guthrie

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Many studies have investigated the relationship between price and quality, but only a few investigated the price-perceived quality relationship for apparel products (e.g. Heisey, 1990). Furthermore, not much attention focused on quality perceptions held by the Generation Y segment.


A Survey Of Current Consumer Technology Use For Apparel Shopping, Tasha L. Lewis 2013 Cornell University

A Survey Of Current Consumer Technology Use For Apparel Shopping, Tasha L. Lewis

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Over the last decade, as e-commerce has grown, researchers have found different shopper motivations for online clothing purchases. Watchravesringkan and Shim (2003) found that shoppers who intended to search the Internet for product information were also more likely to make an online purchase. Goldsmith and Flynn (2004) identified the level of a consumer’s Internet innovativeness as a key motivator of online purchasing, followed by a consumer’s experience with catalogue shopping. However, Kwon & Noh (2010) found that Internet experience was not a strong influence on online apparel purchase intent for mature consumers, but rather their perceived benefits from products ...


Do Consumers’ Apparel Shopping Orientation Changes? An Exploration Of Life Event Influence, Chuanlan Liu, Yang He 2013 Louisiana State University

Do Consumers’ Apparel Shopping Orientation Changes? An Exploration Of Life Event Influence, Chuanlan Liu, Yang He

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Shopping orientation is defined as shopping style, which reflects shoppers’ interests, opinions, attitudes, shopping preferences, activities and behaviors prior, during and after the shopping process (Stone, 1954). Investigation of shopping orientation can determine why consumers patronize a particular type of store or choose a particular brand, which can benefit retailers for their marketing planning. Transitional life prior, during, and after experiencing events is critical phase in one’s life (Cohen, 1988). Research has documented that transitional life periods are associated with significant changes in consumer behavior in general (e.g., Andreasen, 1984).


What’S Materialism? Testing The Two Dominant Perspectives On Materialism, Srikant Manchiraju, Zlatan Krizan 2013 Iowa State University

What’S Materialism? Testing The Two Dominant Perspectives On Materialism, Srikant Manchiraju, Zlatan Krizan

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Materialism is defined as “the importance a consumer attaches to worldly possessions” (Belk, 1984, p. 291). However, scholars (e.g., Larsen, Sirgy, & Wright, 1999; Shrum et al., 2012) have noted that the existing conceptualizations of materialism, and by extension measurement scales, have several drawbacks such as negative priori association and poor scale reliability (Larsen et al., 1999).


Exploring Diversity Within The Hispanic Market: An Investigation Of Shopping Experiences Among Puerto Rican Consumers, Lorraine M. Martinez-Novoa, Nancy Hodges 2013 University of North Carolina

Exploring Diversity Within The Hispanic Market: An Investigation Of Shopping Experiences Among Puerto Rican Consumers, Lorraine M. Martinez-Novoa, Nancy Hodges

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Hispanics are currently the largest minority group in the United States, accounting for 16% of the total population of the country, with Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and Cubans comprising the largest subgroups (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). Although there has been some progress in terms of defining consumption behaviors of Hispanics in general, the existing research tends to consider Hispanic consumers as a homogeneous market and therefore does not address the potential cultural differences that may exist (e.g., Chattaraman & Lennon, 2007; Seok & Sauls, 2007).


Swapping Styles: An Exploration Of Fashion Leadership, Brands, And Group Membership In The Context Of Clothing Swaps, Delisia R. Matthews, Nancy Hodges 2013 Louisiana State University

Swapping Styles: An Exploration Of Fashion Leadership, Brands, And Group Membership In The Context Of Clothing Swaps, Delisia R. Matthews, Nancy Hodges

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Past research on fashion consumer groups indicates that fashion leaders have a high need for uniqueness that motivates them to choose more novel offerings within the apparel product category (Tian, Bearden, & Hunter, 2001; Workman & Kidd, 2000). For these consumers, certain brands can signify specific meanings important to group identity and membership (Liu & Wang, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore how consumers use clothing to identify themselves as fashion leaders and the role of brands in this process. To address this purpose, consumption behaviors of fashion leaders were examined within the clothing swap environment.


Female Consumer’S Fit Strategies And Fit Perception Of Formalwear Rented Online: Content Analysis, Ellen McKinney, Eonyou Shin 2013 Iowa State University

Female Consumer’S Fit Strategies And Fit Perception Of Formalwear Rented Online: Content Analysis, Ellen Mckinney, Eonyou Shin

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

With the advent of Internet technologies, consumers today have extensive opportunities to evaluate products online. Because “consumer reviews, word-of-mouth on the products, could be the most powerful force in the market place” (Silverman, 1997, p. 34), investigating consumer reviews is crucial to understand potential aspects of clothing that consumers may use to evaluate clothing fit. Given that apparel is a highly body-related product, the body-absent online apparel shopping environments is problematic for consumers’ fit problems and sizing inconsistency. Indeed, 62% of women could not find clothing that fit well, and 57% of women did not fit into today’s standard ...


The Relationship Between Consumer Characteristics And Online Co-Design Involvement, Seoha Min, Angella J. Kim, Juanjuan Wu 2013 University of North Carolina

The Relationship Between Consumer Characteristics And Online Co-Design Involvement, Seoha Min, Angella J. Kim, Juanjuan Wu

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Co-design process allows consumers to take an active role to co-create the product (Bolton & Saxena-Iyer, 2009). In the process, consumers’ individual characteristics and their design ability play a central part (Fiore, Lee, & Kunz, 2004). Thus, consumers’ expectations and future involvement in the co-design process are expected to be different based on his or her individual characteristics. Furthermore, consumers may want to involve in codesign process in different ways depending on the product categories. In this regard, we explored various consumer characteristics as influential factors determining consumers’ co-design expectations and their desired involvement. The findings will provide insightful perspectives to online ...


The Effect Of Knowledge On Decision-Making In The Context Of Organic Cotton Clothing, Keunyoung Oh, Liza Abraham 2013 SUNY Buffalo State

The Effect Of Knowledge On Decision-Making In The Context Of Organic Cotton Clothing, Keunyoung Oh, Liza Abraham

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

The effect of consumer knowledge on decision-making has been studied in several ways (Alba & Hutchinson, 1987; Bellman & Park, 1980; Brucks, 1985; Hoch & Deighton, 1989; Lee & Lee, 2009). Consumers constantly gather information and store it in memory as knowledge, use this knowledge in evaluating and choosing products (Murray & Schlacter, 1990). Consumer knowledge may influence how consumers process product information provided by apparel manufacturers on hang tags and product labels and what products they buy. Labels and hang tags for apparel products were found to provide consumers with useful information on decision making (Chowdhary, 2003).


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